-r.'-^

300

OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

1.-

Greatest Elevation 1432 meters

700 1134

518

759

542

195

274

southerly group of ten islands which, except for the northern tip of Albemarle, are south of the equator.

The English designations of the islands, in current use, are chiefly names applied by the buccaneers and dating from the 'General Draught' of W. A. Cowley, 1687. Most members of the archipelago had received earlier Spanish names, besides which various subsequent names have been applied on maps and in texts. Indefatigable, for example, has borne no less than eight names, and this island, as well as James and Charles, each have two official Ecuadorian names. The current Ecuadorian names of the 13 principal islands have been internationally adopted in the Millionth Map of Hispanic America published by the American Geographical Society. The correlations are as follows, the first six islands being listed in order of size.

British Names Ecuadorian Names

Albemarle Isabela

Indefatigable Chavez

Narborough Fernandina

James Santiago

Chatham San Cristobal

Charles Floreana

Hood Espanola

Barrington Santa Fe

Duncan Pinzon

Jervis Rabida

Brattle Tortuga

Grossman Grossman

Abingdon Pinta 594

Bindloe Marchena 244

Tower Genovesa 64

Culpepper Culpepper 169

Wenman Wenman 253

Two of the larger islands, namely Indefatigable and Narborough, each con- sist of a single volcanic peak. On Albemarle and Chatham several peaks along continuous ridges have been the source of lava-flows which now make up a good deal of low-lying land. Darwin estimated that there may be 2000 distinct craters throughout the group, but only Albemarle and James Islands display present volcanic activity. Narborough, the westernmost island, is most heavily covered, even to its peak, with sterile, undecomposed lava, parts of the exten- sive flows dating from periods as recent as the nineteenth century. Stratifica- tion of different sorts of volcanic ejecta, such as lava, tufa, ash, etc., can be seen particularly well in cross-section on the high cliff that makes up the west- erly coast of Abingdon Island. A cream-colored enamel on the rocks at sea level, similar to the "guano glass" of St. Paul Rocks and the Lobos Islands, has been reported at Barrington Island by Mann (1909, 41).

The typical condition of the higher islands, such as the first five in the

......^ r -r'

aiielt":'"'

<■

Toikii

(cknpi

las.'

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

301

accompanying tabular list, is as follows: a wide band of rocky, unproductive, cactus-grown, and thickety growth surrounds a central mass from sea level to an elevation of 250 meters, more or less. Above this the vegetation increases in proportion to altitude, so that the summits are in certain instances beautifully luxuriant. More than half the plants of the Galapagos Islands are endemic. Swarth (1934, 214) writes with reference to the meteorological, edaphic, and floral correlations:

... at sea level there is little in the plant growth that is suggestive of the tropics. There are wet and dry belts, mainly altitudinal, with rain falling mostly on the summits and southern exposures of the mountains; and there are wet and dry seasons of the year, though these periods are very irregular both as to dates and amount of precipitation. In some sections there are large areas of lava flow, barren of vegetation or nearly so, but for the most part the islands have a dense growth of shrubbery. At low elevations this consists of a conspicuously large proportion of cactus, thickets of mesquite and other plants of similar habit, with mangrove along many of the shores; higher up, in the rain belt, there is a )ungle of larger trees, and on the higher summits many square miles that are grass grown or covered w-ith large ferns. The islands present widely different aspects seasonally, due largely to the host of annuals that springs up with the rains, to wither away in the drv heat of the rainless period. The Galapagos are almost destitute of fresh water, the porous lava absorbing the rainfall, so that any surface run-off is of the most temporary nature.

To the famous giant tortoises and other reptiles of the Galapagos, and the disputed points concerning their probable origin, I can give no space. Amphib- ians are lacking, and the native land mammals comprise only one bat and four or five species of small rodents. The latter are now said to be rapidly disappear- ing as the introduced house-rat spreads. According to Osgood (1929, 21), the endemic rodents all belong to the American genus Oryzpmys, or to a very closely related genus; it is more conservative to speak of the Galapagos representatives as four peculiar species than as one generic group. Two of the species live together on Indefatigable Island. All are related to widely distributed South and Central American rodents, of which no competent taxonomic revision has yet been undertaken. Therefore, while the relationships between Galapagos and continental rodents cannot at present be adequately pointed out, the number and diversity of the island forms indicates, in Osgood's opinion, long isolation.

Introduced mammals living in a completely feral state include cattle, horses, asses, hogs, goats, and dogs. The last are highly destructive to the native fauna. A particularly noteworthy characteristic of these descendants of domes- ticated animals is their wildness, which contrasts amazingly with the utter confidence and lack of sophistication shown by nearly all the autocthonous animals. Since such temperamental traits or reactions are in large part genetic, it is not unjust to conclude that the total period of domestication in human history for the introduced animals named above is but as yesterday, and that wildness is a condition to which these creatures may revert within a single generation. The endemic Galapagos animals, on the other hand, have probably enjoyed a relative freedom from terrestrial enemies for an incalculably longer period than the millenia of domestication. As a result of this, the determinants of such responses as we term "shyness'" have been actually eliminated from the germ plasm of many Galapagos animals, including the majority of the birds.

^

Museum o/,y

1869 THE LIBRARY

OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

A STUDY OF SPECIES OF THE RELATED COASTS AND SEAS, INCLUDING THE AMERICAN QUADRANT OF ANTARCTICA BASED UPON THE BREWSTER - SANFORD COLLECTION IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

BY ROBERT CUSHMAN, MURPHY

ILLUSTRATED FROM PAINTINGS BY FRANCIS L. JAQUES PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, AND OTHER DRAWINGS

Vol.1

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT 1936. BY

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF

NATURAL HISTORY

LIGHAKY OFTHS

To FRANK M. CHAPMAN

OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

CONTENTS

PART I. THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

Introduction

The Field- Worker

Narrative of the Brewster-Sanford Expedition 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917

Other Field Work Concerned with the Production of This Report

1. South Georgia Expedition, R. C. Murphy

2. Correia's Work at South Georgia

3. Cape Verde Island Expedition, J. G. Correia

4. Peruvian Littoral Expedition, R. C. Murphy

5. The Visit of Francis L. Jaques to Peru

6. Ecuador and Northern Peru, Murphy and Heilner

7. The Explorations of Chapman and His Associates

8. Tate's Work on the Coast of Venezuela

9. Chapin's Visit to the Galapagos

10. The Cruise of the 'Zaca'

11. Miscellaneous Sources of Material

Acknowledgments

The Geographic Background .

1. The Continent .

2. Meteorology

a. Trade Wind Regimes

h. Maritime Climatic Control on the Central East Coast

c. Modification of the Double Equatorial Rainy Season

d. The Northern-Summer Rainfall Region

e. The Northwestern Coastal Area of Perpetual Rains

/. Winds and Seasons in Guiana

g. The Line of Doldrums

h. The Southern-Summer Rainfall Region

;. The Amazonian Climatic District ....

Page 1

8 9

9

11 15

22 24

25 25 26 26 27 27 28 29 31 31 31 32

33

35

35 38 40 41 41 42 42 44 44 45 45

;• k.

I.

m. n.

0.

viii CONTENTS

The Chilean Mediterranean

The Brazilian Semi-Arid Monsoon District Rainfall on the Brazilian Coast North of Rio . Anticyclonic Coasts and Transcontinental Lows

The Zone of Westerlies

The Diagonal Desert Strip

Sea Birds in Relation to Gales and Lee Shores Birds and Hurricanes

Hurricanes of:

(1) August, 1879 .

(2) August, 1893 .

(3) August, 1933 .

(4) September, 1876

(5) September, 1878

(6) September-October, 1898

The Hydrology in Relation to Oceanic Birds

1. The Nutritional Basis of Marine Life .

2. The Zones of Surface Water .

a. The Antarctic Zone

(1) Birds Typical of the Antarctic Zone

b. The Sub-Antarctic Zone ....

(1) Birds Characteristic of the Sub-Antarctic Zone .

(2) Birds Common to Both the Antarctic and Sub-Ant

arctic Zones . . .

c. The Sub-Tropical Zone

d. The Tropical Zone

(1) Tropical and Sub-Tropical Sea Birds

3. Ocean Currents

a. The Central Anticyclonic Regions

b. The North Equatorial Current

c. The Brazil Current

(1) The Poverty of Tropical Bird Life off Soundings

d. The Cape Horn Drift

e. The Falkland Current

/. The Humboldt Current

(1) The Provenance of Humboldt Current Birds .

(2) The Provenance of Galapagos Sea Birds

g. The Niiio Current

h. Meteorological, Oceanographic, and Biological Correlations in the Northwestern Bight of South America (1) Zoneless Birds

Page 46 46

47 47 48 49 50 51

56 56

57 58 58 59

59 61 65 68 71

72 74

76

77 78 78

81 83 86 87 88

92 93 94 99 101

101

102 108

CONTENTS

An Ornithological Circumnavigation of South America

1. The Caribbean Coast

2. The Atlantic Coast, Trinidad to the Shoulder of Brazil

(1) Reef Corals in South America

3. The Atlantic Equatorial Islands

a. Rocas Reef

h. Fernando Noronha

c. St. Paul Rocks

d. Ascension

(1) Rollers .

4. Recife de Pernambuco to the Rio de la Plata

5- The Atlantic Sub-Tropical Islands a. South Trinidad and Martin V^as h. St. Helena

6. Southern Coasts, Gulf of La Plata to the Strait of Magellan

(1) Sedentary and Exclusively Magellanic Salt-Water

Birds

(2) Magellanic Migratory Salt-Water Birds

(3) Sedentary Salt-Water Birds of Combined Magel

lanic and Humboldt Current Range

(4) Widely Distributed Sub-Antarctic Salt-Water Birds,

with South American Breeding Ranges Restricted to the Magellanic District .

(5) Magellanic Salt-Water Birds of Pan-Antarctic or

More Extensive Breeding Range

7. The Atlantic Sub-Antarctic Islands

a. Falkland Islands h. Gough Island . c. Tristan da Cunha .

8. The Scotia Arc South Georgia South Sandwich Group South Orkneys South Shetlands The Antarctic Archipelago

(1) Bouvet Island

9. Eastern Fuegia to Central Chile

a. Staten Island .

h. Tierra del Fuego and Patagonian Chile

c. The Gulf of Coronados to Valparaiso

a. b. c. d.

e.

IX

Paoe 110 110

124 143

145 145 146 150 151 155

156

171 171 176

181

198 199

200

200

201

202 203 208 214

218 219 223 225 228 229 233

234 234 235 249

CONTENTS

Page

10. The Pacific Sub-Tropical Islands 254

a. Juan Fernandez 254

h. San Ambrosio and San Felix 258

(1) Polynesian Sources of West Coast Wanderers 262

11. The Desert Coast Coquimbo to Point Parinas . . . 263

a. Guano 286

12. The Galapagos Archipelago 296

13- Northern Peru to Panama 303

14. Islands of the Tropical Pacific Bight 317

a. Cocos Island 317

h. Malpelo Island 319

c. The Pearl Islands 320

PART II. THE OCEANIC BIRDS

Scope and Method of Treatment . Forms Described as New in This Book

ORDER SPHENISCIFORMES

The Penguins, Family Spheniscidae ....

Ancestry

Morphological and Physiological Interrelationships

Psychobiologic Reactions

Distribution

YixngV^ngmw Apenodytes ^atagonkus'^.Y.'HxWs.t . Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri G. R. Gray . Gentoo Penguin Pygoscelis papua (Forster) . . . . Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae (Hombron and Jacquinot) Ringed Penguin Pygoscelis antarctica (Forster) Rockhopper Penguin Eudyptes crestatus (J. F. Miller) . Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus (Brandt) . Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Forster) . Peruvian Penguin Spheniscus humholdti Meyen Galapagos Penguin Spheniscus mendiculus Sundevall

323 328

329

329 330 334 338

342

343 354 367 386 406 415 432 437 452 466

CONTENTS XI

Page

ORDER PROCELLARIIFORMES 471

Classification 472

Stomach Oil 473

Distribution 474

Evolution . 475

Nidification and Growth 476

Enemies 480

Locomotion 482

1. Walking 482

2. Flight 483

Feeding 486

The Albatrosses, Family Diomedeidae 489

Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca (Hilsenberg) 494

Light-mantled Sooty Albatross Phoebetria palpebrata (Forster) . . . 497

Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophris Temminck .... 505

Gray-headed Albatross Diomedea chrysostoma Forster 514

Yellow-nosed Albatross Diomedea chlororhynchos Gmelin . . . .518

Buller's Albatross Diomedea bullcn Rothschild 524

White-capped Albatross Diomedea cauta salvini (Rothschild) . . . 526

Galapagos Albatross Diomedea irrorata Salvin 530

Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans exulans Linnaeus .... 538

Tristan Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans dabbenena Mathews . . 571

Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora Lesson 575

The Petrels, Family Procellariidae 584

The Fulmars, Cape Pigeons, Whale-birds, Gadfly Petrels, Shear- waters, etc.. Subfamily Puffininae 584

Giant Fulmar Macronectes giganteus (Gmelin) 584

Silver-gray Fulmar Priocella antarctica (Stephens) 596

Cape Pigeon Daption capensis (Linnaeus) 601

The Whale-birds of the Genus Pachyptila 610

Broad-billed Whale-bird Pachyptila for.\teri (Latham) .... 612, 615 Antarctic Whale-bird Pachyptila desolata (Gmelin) .... 613, 620

Slender-billed Whale-bird Pachyptila belcheri (Mathews) . . . 613, 629

Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur (Kuhl) 613, 631

Snow Petrel Pagodroma nivea (Forster) 633

Antarctic Petrel Thalassoica antarctica (Gmelin) 638

Shoemaker Procellaria aequinoctialis Linnaeus 641

Parkinson's Petrel Procellaria parkinsoni G. R. Gray 647

Pediunker Adamastor cineveus (Gmelin) 649

Xll

CONTENTS

Pink-footed Shearwater Puffinus creatopus Coues Flesh-footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes Gould . Greater Shearwater Puffinus gravis (O'Reilly) Gray-backed Shearwater Puffinus hulleri Salvin Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus (Gmelin) Short-tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris (Temminck) Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus puffinus (Briinnich) .

The Least Shearwaters

Tristan Shearwater Puffinus assimilis elegans Giglioli and Salvadori Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus Iherminieri Iherminieri Lesson Galapagos Shearwater Puffinus Iherminieri subalaris Ridgway

Great- winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera macroptera (A. Smith)

Black-capped Petrel Pterodroma hasitata (Kuhl)

Galapagos Petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia phaeopygia (Salvin)

Juan Fernandez Petrel Pterodroma externa externa (Salvin)

Atlantic Petrel Pterodroma incerta (Schlegel)

Kerguelen Petrel Pterodroma brevirostris (Lesson)

Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma neglecta (Schlegel)

South Trinidad Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniana (Giglioli and Sal

Soft-plumaged Petrel Pterodroma mollis mollis (Gould) .

The Small Petrels of the Genus Pterodroma

Cook's Petrel Pterodroma cookii orientalis Murphy .

Mas Atierra Petrel Pterodroma cookii defilippiana (Giglioli and Salvadori)

Mas Afuera Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera masafuerae Lonnberg

White-throated Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera hrevipes (Peale) .

Blue Petrel Halohaena caerulea (Gmelin)

vado

The Storm Petrels, Subfamily Hydrobatinae

Least Petrel Halocyptena microsoma Coues

Galapagos Storm Petrel Oceanodroma tethys tethys (Bonaparte) Peruvian Storm Petrel Oceanodroma tethys kelsalli (Lowe) Madeiran Storm Petrel Oceanodroma castro castro (Harcourt) . Bangs's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma castro hangsi Nichols . Leach's Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa leucorhoa (Vieillot) Markham's Storm Petrel Oceanodroma markhami (Salvin) Hornby's Petrel Oceanodrotna hornbyi (G. R. Gray) Black Petrel Loomelania melania (Bonaparte) . Gray-backed Storm Petrel Garrodia nereis (Gould) Wilson's Petrel Oceanites oceanicus oceanicus (Kuhl) Fuegian Petrel Oceanites oceanicus chilensis Murphy Elliot's Storm Petrel Oceanites gracilis gracilis (Elliot) Lowe's Storm Petrel Oceanites gracilis galapagoensis Lowe White-bellied Storm Petrel Fregetta grallaria grallaria (Vieillot)

n)

Paoe 653

658 660 664 666 673 677

681 682 684 687

689 692 697 700 702 703 704 708 711

713

714 717 719 722

723

726

729 729 731 732 734 734 739 741 743 746 748 754 757 759 760

CONTENTS

Tristan Storm Petrel Fregetta grallaria (^tristanensis ?) (Mathews) Black-bellied Storm Petrel Fregetta tropica (Gould) White-faced Storm Petrel Pelago'droma marina marina (Latham) Galapagos Frigate Petrel Pelagodroma marina, subspecies

The Diving Petrels, Family Pelecanoididae

Potoyunco Pelecanoides garnotii (Lesson)

Magellanic Diving Petrel Pelecanoides magellani (Mathews) South Georgian Diving Petrel Pelecanoides georgicus Murphy and Harper Falkland Diving Petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix berard (Gaimard) Tristan Diving Petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix dacunhae NicoU . Coppinger's Diving Petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix coppingeri Mathews .

ORDER PELECANIFORMES

The Tropic-birds, Family Phaethontidae

South Atlantic Red-billed Tropic-bird Phaethon aethereus aethereus Linnaeus Caribbean Red-billed Tropic-bird Phaethon aethereus mesonauta Peters South Atlantic White-tailed Tropic-bird Phaethon lepturus Qascensionis?")

(Mathews)

Caribbean White-tailed Tropic-bird Phaethon lepturus catesbyi Brandt

X HI

Page

762 764 767 770

771 773 779 783 788 790 791

793

796

797 798

802 802

The Pelicans, Family Pelecanidae 807

Antillean Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis Linnaeus 808, 810 American Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis Gmelin 808, 810 Galapagos Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis, subspecies .... 810, 818 Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis thagus Molina 819

The Boobies, Family Sulidae *

Blue-footed Booby Sula nehouxii Milne-Edwards

Piquero Sula variegata (Tschudi)

Atlantic Masked Booby Sula dactylatra dactylatra Lesson Galapagos Masked Booby Sula dactylatra granti Rothschild Brown Booby Sula leucogaster leucogaster (Boddaert) Colombian Booby Sula leucogaster etesiaca Thayer and Bangs Red-footed Booby Sula sula (Linnaeus) ....

The Cormorants, Family Phalacrocoracidae Red-footed Shag Phalacrocorax gaimardi (Lesson)

The Blue-eyed Shags

Magellanic Blue-eyed Shag Phalacrocorax atriceps atriceps King

South Georgian Blue-eyed Shag Phalacrocorax atriceps georgianus Lonnberg

Antarctic Blue-eyed Shag Phalacrocorax atriceps, subspecies

King Shag Phalacrocorax albiventer (Lesson)

Rock Shag Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Gmelin)

827

829 838 846 846 854 859 861

870 873

878 881 885

891 895

XIV CONTENTS

Page

Guanay Phalacrocorax bougainvillii (Lesson) 899

Bigiia Cormorant Phalacrocorax olivaceus olivaceus (Humboldt) . 909

Fuegian Cormorant Phalacrocorax olivaceus hornensis Murphy . . . 915 Flightless Cormorant Nannopterum harrisi (Rothschild) .... 916

The Man-o'-war Birds, Family Fregatidae 919

Ascension Man-o'-war Bird Fregata aquila (Linnaeus) .... 920, 924

Galapagos Man-o'-war Bird Fregata magnificens magnificens Mathews 920, 926

Caribbean Man-o'-war Bird Fregata magnificens rothschildi Mathews . 921, 927

Ridgway's Man-o'-war Bird Fregata minor ridgwayi Mathews 921, 937

South Trinidad Man-o'-war Bird Fregata minor nicolli Mathews . 921, 938

Lesser Man-o'-war Bird Fregata ariel trinitatis Ribeiro .... 921, 939

ORDER A NSERI FORMES 941

The Geese and Ducks, Family Anatidae ...... 941

Kelp Goose Chloephaga hybrida hybrida (Molina) ...... 942

Falkland Kelp Goose Chloephaga hybrida malvinarum Phillips . 945

South Georgian Teal Anas georgica Gmelin 948

The Steamer Ducks 951

Magellanic Flightless Steamer Duck Tachyeres pteneres (Forster) . 957

Falkland Flightless Steamer Duck Tachyeres brachypterus (Latham) 964

Flying Steamer Duck Tachyeres patachonicus (King) 968

ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES . 972

The Oyster-catchers, Family Haematopodidae .... 973

American Oyster-catcher Haematopus ostralegus palliatus Temminck . 975

Peruvian Oyster-catcher Haematopus ostralegus pitanay Murphy . 978

Galapagos Oyster-catcher Haematopus ostralegus galapagensis Ridgway 981

Patagonian Oyster-catcher Haematopus ostralegus durnjordi Sharpe . . 983

Fuegian Oyster-catcher Haematopus leucopodus Garnot 985

Black Oyster-catcher Haematopus ater Vieillot and Oudart .... 988

The Phalaropes, Family Phalaropodidae 993

'KeAVhs.lzTo^e Phalaropus fulicarius (l.mna.t\\s) 996

Northern Phalarope Lobipes lobatus (Linnaeus) 997

Wilson's Phalarope Steganopus tricolor Vieillot 998

The Sheath-bills, Family Chionididae 999

Sheath-bill Chionis alba (Gmelin) 1000

The Skuas and Jaegers, Family Stercorariidae 1006

The Skuas, Genus Catharacta 1006

C\ii\t3.nSk\i2i Catharacta skua chilensis QBonzp2ine) . . . 1009,1013 South Polar Skua Catharacta skua maccormicki (Saunders) . . 1009, 1016

CONTENTS XV

Page

Falkland Skua Catharacta skua antarctica (Lesson) .... 1010, 1020

Brown Skua Catharacta skua lonnbergi Mathews .... 1010, 1023

Tristan Skua Catharacta skua, subspecies 1033

The Jaegers, Genus Stercorarius 1034

Vomzvivxe ]3.QgQr Stercorarius -pomarinus (yemv[\mc\C) 1035

Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus (Linnaeus) 1037

Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudus Vieillot 1038

The Gulls and Terns, Family Laridae 1040

Dolphin Gull Leucophaeus scoresbii (Traill) 1043

Dusky Gull Larus fuliginosus Gould 1046

Gray Gull Larus modestus Tschudi 1049

Belcher's Gull Larus belcheri Vigors 1052

Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein 1057

Laughing Gull Larus atricilla Linnaeus 1071

Gray-hooded Gull Larus cirrocephalus cirrocephalus Vieillot .... 1074

Mountain Gull Larus serranus Tschudi 1077

Franklin's Gull L^raj- /'//^ixf^w Wagler 1079

Brown-hooded Gull Larus maculipennis Lichtenstein 1082

Swallow-tailed Gull Creagrus furcatus (Neboux) 1086

Black Tern Chlidonias nigra surinamensis (Gmelin) 1089

Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex simplex (Gmelin) 1090

Southern Large-billed Tern Phaetusa simplex chloropoda (Vieillot) . 1091

Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica (Gmelin) 1092

South American Tern Sterna hirundinacea Lesson 1094

Common Tern Sterna hirundo hirundo Linnaeus 1098

Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea Pontoppidan 1099

Antarctic Tern Sterna vittata Gmelin, and its subspecies .... 1105

South Georgian Tern Sterna vittata georgiae Reichenow .... 1109

Tristan da Cunha Tern Sterna vittata, subspecies 1113

Trudeau's Tern Sterna trudeaui Audubon 1114

Roseate Tern Sterna dougalli dougalli Montagu 1116

Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus melanoptera Swainson 1118

Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata Linnaeus, and its subspecies 1120

Yellow-billed Tern Sterna superciliaris Vieillot 1132

Peruvian Tern Sterna lorata Philippi and Landbeck 1134

Least Tern Sterna albijrons antillarum (Lesson) 1136

Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus maximus (Boddaert) 1138

Cayenne Tern Thalasseus eurygnatha (Saunders) 1140

Elegant Tern Thalasseus elegans (Gambel) 1141

Cabot's Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus (Cabot) .... 1142

Inca Tern Larosterna inca (Lesson) 1143

The Pacific Ternlets, or Gray Noddies 1147

San Ambrosio Gray Ternlet Procelsterna albivitta imitatrtx Mathews . . 1148

xvi CONTENTS

The Noddies, Genus Anous

Brown Noddy Anous stolidus stolidus (Linnaeus)

Socorro Noddy Anoiis stolidus ridgwayi Anthony

Galapagos Noddy Anoiis stolidus galapagensis Sharpe

San Felix Noddy, Anoiis stolidus, subspecies

Atlantic Black Noddy Anoiis minutus atlanticus (Mathews)

Cocos Black Noddy Anoiis minutus diamesus (Heller and Snodgrass)

The Fairy Terns, Genus Gygis ..... Atlantic Fairy Tern Gygis alba alba (Sparrman) Cocos Fairy Tern Gygis alba (jandida .^) (Gmelin) .

The Skimmers, Family Rynchopidae Black Skimmer Rynchops nigra Linnaeus, and its forms

Bibliography

Addenda to Bibliography

Index

Page 1149 1150 1158 1159 1160 1160 1163

1164 1164 1168

1169 1169 1179 1210 1211

ILLUSTRATIONS

TEXT FIGURES

Page

1. Zones of calms, trade winds, and westerly winds in the Atlantic Ocean between

latitudes 60° N. and 60° S., with comparative graphs showing the annual means of salinity, precipitation, evaporation, densitv, barometric pressure, and the temperature of air and surface water. 43

2. Birds seeking refuge on a steamship in the "eye" of a hurricane. 54

3. Courses of six cyclonic storms responsible for the transportation of pan-tropical

sea birds to extralimital regions in North America. 56

4. The closed circuit of nutrition within the sea. 62

5. Mean quantity, in thousands of organisms per liter, of the collective plankton

in the upper 50 meters of South Atlantic water. 64

6. Zones of surface water, and their convergences, in south polar projection. 67

7. Approximate positions of the mean summer isotherms of surface temperature

between South America and the Antarctic Archipelago. 70

8. Schematic diagram to show the course of the principal current movements

named in the text. 84

9. Flow of the surface waters of the Atlantic in the month of February. 85

10. Relative abundance of sea birds in three latitudinal zones of the South Atlantic. 90

11. Oceanic circulation and pasturage around South Georgia. 92

12. 13, 14. Oceanic conditions off northwestern South America during normal

periods of the southern-hemisphere winter season (Map A) and summer season ('Map B), and at a period of exaggerated Niiio phenomena (.MapC).

104, 105, 107

15- Coasts of northern South America, the Caribbean region, and the Gulf of Mexico. Ill

16. Venezuelan coastal islands. 121

17. Coast of eastern tropical South .America and the associated islands. 143

18. Rocas Reef. 145

19. Fernando Noronha Island. 147

20. St. Paul Rocks. 150

21. Ascension Island. 152

22. Bathvmetric chart showing the continental shelf (to 200 meters), the oceanic

ridges and plateaus bounded b)- the 4000-meter contour, and the deeper basins of the South Atlantic and eastern South Pacific Oceans. 159

23. Complementary examples of oceanic distribution in South America, as corre-

lated with surface temperatures. 165

24. South Trinidad and Martin \'as Islands. 172

25. St. Helena Island. 177

26. Southern Atlantic Coast of South America. 182

27. Southernmost South America and the associated islands. 197

28. Falkland Islands. 203

29. Gough Island. 209

30. Tristan da Cunha Islands. 215

31. South Georgia Island. 220

32. South Sandwich Islands. 223

xviii ILLUSTRATIONS

Page

33. South Orkney Islands. 226

34. South Shetland Islands. 228 35- Antarctic Archipelago. 230

36. Bouvet Island. 233

37. Tierra del Fuego. 236

38. Southern Pacific coast of South America. 251

39. Juan Ferna'ndez Islands. 255

40. San Ambrosio and San Felix Isles. 259

41. Topographic and climatic cross-section of the Peruvian coast. 269

42. a and h. Peruvian guano stations. 290,291

43. Annual extraction of guano from the Peruvian islands, 1909 to 1934. 294

44. Galapagos Archipelago. 299

45. Coasts of northern Peru and Ecuador, showing the line dividing regions

having annual rains from those having rains only at intervals of years. 308

46. Southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru. 310

47. Northern Pacific coast of South America and the associated islands. 313

48. Cocos Island. 318

49. Malpelo Island. 319

50. Pearl Islands. 320

51. Heads of the ten species of American Penguins, to illustrate generic and

specific characters. 335

52. Bills of five species of Mollymauks (^Diomedea), to illustrate the form of

the plates and of the integument in the commissures, and the distribu- tion of color. 493

53. Bills of the two species of Sooty Albatrosses. 496

54. Wandering Albatrosses, showing plumages intermediate between the "chio-

noptera" and exulans stages. 548

55. Bills of two forms of South Atlantic Wandering Albatrosses drawn to the

same scale. 573

56. Distinguishing characters in the narial tubes of the two species of Great

Albatrosses QDiomedea exu/ans and D. epomophora). 580

57. Beaks of various genera of Petrels, drawn to the same scale. 597

58. Effects of wear and moult upon the plumage-pattern of the Cape Pigeon

(^Daptiov capensis^. 606

59. Lateral and superior aspects of the bills of four species of Whale-birds

{Pachyptila). 614

60. MaxiUarv lamellae of the Broad-billed Whale-bird (^Pachyptila forsterf). 615

61. Head of Broad-billed Whale-bird, showing the baleen-like lamellae, the

fleshv tongue, and the expansible pouch. 619

/ ILLUSTRATIONS xix

COLORED PLATES (UNNUMBERED)

These plates will he found together in a separate tection at the back of the book.

Atlantic, or Schlegel's Petrel, off Tristan da Cunha.

Frontispiece Male (white) and female Kelp Goose, Chonos Archipelago, Chile. Guano fowl of the Humboldt Current: Peruvian Pelicans, Boobies, and Cormorants. King Penguins, South Georgia Island.

Peruvian Penguins at the mouth of a sea cave, Independencia Bay. Wandering Albatross and Wilson's Petrels, and a double circular rainbow sketched bv

the author in the South Atlantic.

NUMBERED PLATES These plates will he found together in a separate section at the hack Plate "/ '^^ *<'<'^-

\. American Museum Field-workers. F. L. Jaques sketching at the Chincha Islands; R. H. Beck preparing specimens on the 'Leguri.'

2. South America, the adjacent oceans and their islands, showing the pattern of

drainage, the continental precipitation, and isanomalous lines of the surface water-minus-air temperature relationship.

3. Uprooted trees along mudbanks of the Amazon estuary.

The sea beach in the State of Ceara', Brazil, with habitations on the dunes and arid coastal plains between the ocean and the mountains.

4. Drowned valley topography at Victoria, Brazil.

Seacoast of the State of Maranhao, Brazil, with extensively flooded forest land between the mountains and the beach.

5. Feeble mangrove growth at Conway Bay, Indefatigable Island. Anomalous

equatorial district of the Pacific Tropical Zone. Tussock grass (Poa flabellata^ at Ildefonso Island. Sub-Antarctic Zone.

6. South Trinidad. Sub-Tropical Zone. Coast of Cocos Island. Tropical Zone.

7. Felton's Harbor, Rio Gallegos, at low tide.

8. King Edward Cove, Cumberland Bay, South Georgia. Low Antarctic Zone.

The southernmost peak of Powell Island, South Orkneys. High Antarctic Zone.

9. Western end of Gable Island, Beagle Channel, showing wind-erosion. Sub-

Antarctic Zone. Hacienda Grande, Bertrand Island, the southernmost sheep ranch in the world. Sub-Antarctic Zone. 10. Guaitecas landscapes. A humid district of the Sub-Antarctic Zone.

San Juan Bautista \'alley, Mas Atierra. Sub-Tropical Zone, but with numerous

sub-antarctic associations. Coast of the north Chincha Island. Excessively arid coastal belt of the Humboldt Current, n. Mas Afuera Island. The eastern scarp at an altitude of 700 meters; the main gorge

at the coast. 12. San Felix Island and Gonzales Islet, with San Ambrosio in the distance. Sub- Tropical Zone. Hormigas de Afuera Islets.

'''' ILLUSTRATIONS

Plate

13- Guano excavation at the central Chincha Island, about 1860.

14, 15. Depletion and Restoration. Guano ships about the year 1860, between the

central and north Chincha Islands. The "bathing beach" of fledgling

Guanays in February, 1935-

16. The south Chincha Island in 1860 and in 1919. Residual guano stacks at the Chincha Islands, about 1860.

17. Central Chincha Island, as seen from the north island of the group.

18. Galapagos Landscapes. Conway Bay, Indefatigable Island; Tagus Cove, Al-

bemarle Island; southwestern coast of Albemarle, with craters close to the sea.

19. The "head of the corpse," El Muerto Island, showing erosion due to the rains

of February, 1925. North Guanape Island, with colonies of Guanays.

20. La Plata Island. An eroded peninsula of the lowest tablazo; ephemeral rain

vegetation, with xerophilous growth in the background.

21. Emperor Penguins in juvena! plumage. Ross Sea.

King Penguins incubating and quarreling. South Georgia.

22. King Penguin tucking away its egg; King Penguins entering the water. South

Georgia. Galapagos Penguins.

23. Gentoo Penguins. The pathway from the sea to a hilltop colony. South

Georgia.

24. Gentoo Penguins. A nursery of young at the commencement of moult of the

down, a parent, egg, and chick.

25. Rockhopper Penguins at the Falklands. A territorial squabble. Bleaker Island;

incubating adult, Cochon Island.

26. Rockhopper Penguins and King Shags at an early stage of the nesting season.

Cochon Island, Falklands.

27. Egging in the Rockhopper colon\' at Kidney Island, Falklands. Rockhopper Penguins on an abandoned nest of the Black-browed Albatross.

28. Landing-place of the Rockhopper Penguins. Kidney Island, Falklands. Captive fledgling Peruvian Penguins. Chincha Islands.

Fledgling Magellanic Penguins. Guaitecas Islands.

29. Magellanic Penguins at York Bay, East Falkland.

30. Peruvian Penguins on La Goleta, Chincha Islands. Magellanic Penguins in a pond at Sea Lion Island, Falklands.

31. Black-browed Albatrosses; Cape Pigeon. South Atlantic.

Fledgling White-bellied Storm Petrel. Santa Clara Island, Juan Fernandez.

32. Sooty Albatross in flight. South Atlantic.

White Giant Fulmar; Giant Fulmar standing guard over its nestling. South Georgia.

33. Light-mantled Sootv Albatross brooding its nestling. South Georgia. Male Wandering Albatross incubating. South Georgia.

34. Black-browed Albatrosses on their nests at Ildefonso Islet.

35. Male and female Wandering Albatrosses at the nest. South Georgia.

36. Black-browed Albatross crossing the stern of the brig "Daisy." South Atlantic. Cape Pigeon. South Georgia.

37. Incubating Giant Fulmars. Sea Lion Island, Falklands.

38. Snow Petrel on its nest. Adelie Land.

OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

ERRATA

Page

236, Fig. 37. For "Ishuaia," read Ushuaia. 296, bottom line. For "gues," read longues. 572, first word of bottom line should read "southern."

599, fifth and sixth lines of second paragraph. Kerguelen Island probably does not fall within the breeding range of the species. Third and fourth lines of third paragraph. For "Cape Roquemaurel, Kerguelen," read Cape Roqueraaurel, Louis Philippe Peninsula, West Antarctica.

1101, in page heading. For "Common Tern," read Arctic Tern.

1201, The second reference under Reinhardt is apparently an incorrect citation of the preceding paper.

OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

Part I

THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

INTRODUCTION

Collections of South American birds are among the oldest still preserved in natural history museums. Without exception, however, such historic series are chiefly made up of species inhabiting the land areas or the inland waters of the continent. Systematic field work devoted to sea birds, particularly to such as are truly pelagic, has been undertaken only within the modern era of ornithol- ogy, and never in South America as a whole until the time of the Brewster- Sanford Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History.

Most of the earlier collections of South American oceanic birds were gathered together sporadically. They were obtained in a haphazard manner on voyages having other aims; they came from chance localities along the coast, at dis- jointed dates covering long periods of years. They formed, therefore, random, often puzzling aggregations of specimens, rather than adequate series such as in themselves go far toward solving some of the very problems that they raise. Moreover, the early collections were widely scattered, so that it was usually impracticable to bring together representative series which would illustrate individual and seasonal variations, and the immature plumages, of many forms. Finally, relatively few specimens had been taken at the breeding grounds of the respective species, and the key to numberless difficulties lies in the possession of accurately labelled nesting birds.

A somewhat extreme example of the slight and casual data upon which knowledge of South American marine ornithology has been based is offered by Hornby's Petrel. The type of this distinctive sea bird was supposedly captured on "the north-west coast of America" some time previous to 1853- No second specimen was seen until 1895, and the species remained all but unknown until 1913- Mainly as a result of the Brewster-Sanford Expedition, Oceamdroma hornhyi is now recognized as a common petrel along the west coast of South America between the latitudes of central Chile and the Gulf of Guayaquil (Murphy, 1922, 60). With our increased information, the bird has at length acquired signifi- cance. What was formerly little more than a meaningless name has become an item of zoogeographic importance, for the range of Hornby's Petrel fits well, as we shall see, into a special faunal zone of the eastern South Pacific.

Oceanic birds of several groups still belong in greater or lesser degree within a similar category of uncertainty, but perhaps none so much as other members of the Procellariiformes, the order comprising the albatrosses, fulmars, shear- waters, and petrels. Spending most of their lives on the high sea, usually at a distance from the land, these birds are even more essentially pelagic than the penguins. Certain species may abound off any coast, but, unless they are blown

2 OCEANIC BIRDS OF SOUTH AMERICA

ashore by severe storms, or attracted to the littoral waters by peculiar concen- tration of food, we may be unaware of their existence. While the Procellarii- formes are distributed over the salt waters of the globe, they are more numerous in the southern oceans than elsewhere. Here they breed in part at islands so remote or inaccessible that the nesting places of certain species are yet to be discovered.

It is, therefore, apparent that in order to secure specimens of such sea birds an aggressive program is necessary. The collector must cruise in remote and tempestuous waters, and must face difficulties, hardship, and danger of a sort that does not confront the collector of terrestrial birds. In the same statement is expressed the reason why these birds, which exist in incalculable numbers, have been until recently so rare in collections.

It was this rarity, coupled with our ignorance regarding the habits of the winged wanderers of the ocean, that influenced Dr. Leonard C. Sanford and Mr. Frederick F. Brewster to make a special effort to fill a great gap in ornithological collections and ornithological biography. Both gentlemen, who are residents of New Haven, Connecticut, have been for periods of years trustees of the Ameri- can Museum of Natural History, and ardent supporters of its objects.

Dr. Sanford has been the promoter of innumerable enterprises that have enriched the ornithological and other collections of the Museum through field work, purchase, and exchange. Himself possessed of wide knowledge of birds, especially of oceanic species and of land birds that are rare or of extraordinary historic interest. Dr. Sanford has been the spirit behind expeditions more com- prehensive than any others in the annals of ornithological exploration. He has been unsparing of his own resources, and has enlisted the aid and kindled the enthusiasm of his friends. He has worked in the field with his own gun and hands, and has cooperated, whenever favorable opportunity offered, with many other institutions and with patrons of ornithology, in both the United States and the Old World. The new building of the Department of Birds, a joint gift of the late Mr. Harry Payne Whitney and the City of New York to the American Museum of Natural History, is recognized by friends of Dr. Sanford as a symbol of his devoted service.

Mr. Brewster, on his part, not only supported the South American field in- vestigations throughout their course of nearly five years, but has ever since sustained an interest and a pride in the collection and the scientific reports. His latest contribution to this branch of the Museum's research is a gift to cover the costs of publishing the present volumes. Those of us who are old enough to look back upon more than two decades of ornithological work in the American Museum now realize that Mr. Brewster's enthusiasm and munificence first in- jected the leaven which has been responsible for the phenomenal growth of our world-wide collection of birds.

THE FIELD-WORKER

As the first step in launching the South American marine work. Dr. Sanford and Mr. Brewster fortunately obtained the cooperation of Mr. Rollo Howard

THE FIELD-WORKER 3

Beck. At that date (1912), Mr. Beck had not only had an extended experience in collecting petrels in the northern Pacific Ocean, at the Galapagos Islands, and elsewhere, but had established a record for fiel'^ work among sea birds in general which had placed him in a class by himself. Subsequent activities during the Brewster-Sanford Expedition, a later voyage to Alaska, and, finally, the ten- years' campaign of the Whitney South Sea Expedition, have served only to enhance his effectiveness and his reputation. He stands today as the most suc- cessful worker in this branch of ornithology that the world has known.

At my urgent request, Mr. Beck has written the following brief biographical notes, which eminently deserve a place in a record based in so large a measure upon his skill in the field.

The light of day first greeted me in Los Gatos, Santa Clara County, California, on August 26, 1870. My parents, six years after that, took me with them when they moved across the valley to Berryessa, the home of the remaining members of the Berryessa family, who still retained a few hundred acres of the many thousands their forbears had received from the Spanish Governor of California. My school days did not last quite long enough for me to graduate from the eighth grade in the Berryessa grammar school.

In the Santa Clara Valley fruit was beginning to