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THE JEWISH CHURCH.

FROM SAMUEL TO THE CAPTIVITY

WORKS OF

SKrfljur *JPpnr|gn jefrenfog, &&.,

DZE-A-IET OIF WESTMI1TSTER. •♦•

LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF THE JEWISH

CHURCH. Part I.— Abraham to Samuel. With Maps and Plans. One vol. crown 8vo, cloth, new and cheaper edition $2.50

THE SAME. Part II.— From Samuel to the Captivity.

One vol. crown 8vo, cloth, new and cheaper edition 2.50

LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF THE EASTERN

CHURCH, with an Introduction on the Study of Ecclesiastical His- tory. One vol. crown 8vo, cloth, new and cheaper edition 2.50

SINAI AND PALESTINE. One vol. crown 8vo, cloth,

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SERMONS PREACHED BEFORE HIS ROYAL

HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, during his Tour in the

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LECTURES ON THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

OF SCOTLAND. Delivered in Edinburgh, 1872. One vol. 8vo, cloth.. 2.50

Sent, postpaid, on receipt of price, by the publishers,

SCRIBNER, ARMSTRONG & CO., New York.

LECTURES

ON THE HISTORY

OF

THE JEWISH CHURCH

PART II. FROM SAMUEL TO THE CAPTIVITY

BY ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY, D.D.

DEAN OF WESTMINSTER

NEW YORK: SCRIBNER, ARMSTRONG, AND CO.,

1876.

[Ptiblished by arran</enntnt vrith the Author]

BN1

lib

Si

RIVERSIDE CAMBRIDGE: F3UNTED BY H. O. HOUGHTON AND COMFA3T2.

LIBRA

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PREFACE.

This volume, like that which preceded it, contains the substance of Lectures delivered from the Chair of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford. Whilst still disclaiming, as before, any pretensions to critical or linguistic research, I gladly acknowledge my increased debt to the scholars and divines who have traversed this ground, Ewald, in his great work on the "History of the People of Israel," to which I must here add his no less important work on the Prophets ; Dean Milman, in his " History of the Jews," now republished in its completer form ; Dr. Pusey's " Commentary on the Minor Prophets " ; the numerous writers on the Old Testament, in Dr. Smith's "Diction- ary of the Bible," Mr. Grove especially, to whom I am once more indebted for his careful revision of the text of this volume, and for frequent suggestions of which I have constantly availed myself.1 Many

1 For various illustrations of the Persia, from his own personal ex- manners and customs, I must ex- perience of the East. press my obligations to the kindness The topography of Jerusalem f of Mr. Morier, who has allowed me which occupies so large a space in the use of a Bible, copiously an- this period of the history, demands notated by his brother, the well- further notice than I have given to known minister at the court of it. But the extreme uncertainty in

Vi PREFACE.

thoughts have, doubtless, been confirmed or origi- nated by Mr. Maurice's a Sermons on the Prophets and Kings."

The general principles which have guided the selec tion of topics, and the general sources from which the materials are drawn, are too similar to those which ] have set forth in the Preface to my former volume to need any additional remark.

A few special observations, however, are suggested by the peculiarities of the portion of the history on which we now enter.

1. Although there still remains the same difficulty, which occurs in the earlier period, of distinguishing between the poetical and the historical portions of the narrative, yet the historical element here so far pre- ponderates, and the mass of unquestionably contem- porary literature is so far larger, that I have ventured much more freely than before to throw the Lectures into the form of a continuous narrative ; believing that thus best the Sacred History would be enabled to speak for itself. There are, doubtless, many pas- sages in which the historical facts and the Oriental figures are too closely interwoven to be at this dis- tance of time easily separated. There are others which bring out more distinctly than in the earlier history the interesting variations between the Hebrew text

which till further excavations are the City or Temple, beyond sucb

possible it is of necessity involved, general indications as can be gath*

has withheld me from offering any ered from the ancient descriptions, detailed plan or theory, either of

preface. yii

which is the basis of our modern versions,, and that which is represented by the Septuagint. Others again, especially where we have the advantage of comparing the parallel narratives of the Books of Kings and tff Chronicles, exhibit diversities which cannot be sur- mounted, except by an arbitrary process of excision, which we are hardly justified in adopting, and which would obliterate the value of the separate records. In chronology, even after the reign of Solomon, the same confusions which occur in other ancient histories occur here also. Lord Arthur Hervey, whose praiseworthy devotion to this branch of Biblical study gives peculiar weight to his authority, finds the dates so unmanage- able as to suggest to him the probability that they are added by another hand. Others, such as Mr. Fynes Clinton, Mr. Greswell, and Dr. Pusey,1 adopt the course of rejecting as spurious the indications of time which, from internal evidence, they cannot recon- cile with what seems to be required by the history.

Still on the whole the substantially historical charac- ter of the narrative is admitted by all. Even the chron- ological uncertainties,2 considerable as they are, are compressed within comparatively narrow limits. The constant references of the Books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles to records which, though lost, were evidently contemporary, furnish a guarantee for the

1 See, for example, 2 Kings 2 As the nearest approximation,

xxiv. 8 ; 2 Chr. xxxvi. 9 ; Dr. I have affixed the most important

Pusey's note on Daniel the Prophet, dates from Clinton's Fasti Hellenic*

p. 313. vol. i. Appendix, c. 5.

Viii PREFACE.

general truthfulness of the narrative, such as no othei ancient history not itself contemporary can exhibit. The parallel stream of Prophetic literature gives a wholly independent confirmation of the same kind, in some instances extending even to incidents which are preserved to us only in the later Chronicles 1 and Josephus. The allusions to Jewish history in the Assyr- ian and Egyptian monuments, so far as they can be trusted, and the undoubted recurrences of the same imagery in the sculptures as that employed by the Prophets, are valuable as illustrations of the Bibli- cal history, even where they cannot be used as con- firmations of it.2 Jewish and Arabian traditions relat- ing to this period, if less striking, are at least more within the bounds of probability, and more likely to contain some grains of historical truth than those which relate to the Patriarchal age. And as before, so now, even when of unquestionably late origin, they seem to be worthy of notice, as filling up the outline of the forms which the personages and events of this history have assumed in large periods, and to large masses, of mankind.

1 E. g. in the earthquake of Uz- which they refer are such as have ziah's reign (see Lecture XXXVII.), never been doubted by any one, and the captivity of Manasseh (see and therefore are much more in a Lecture XXXIX.). condition to give their weight to

2 These monuments cannot prop- the confessedly doubtful interpreta- erly be said to contain confirma- tion of the cuneiform inscriptions, tions of the Jewish history be- than to receive any corroboration cause, with very few exceptions, from it.

vhe only events in that history to

PREFACE. LX

2. These are the materials from which the following Lectures are drawn. It will be seen that what they profess to give is not a commentary on the sacred text, but a delineation of the essential features of the history of the Jewish Church, during the second period1 of its existence. In so doing, it has been impossible to suppress the horrors consequent on the " hardness of heart " which characterized the Israelite nation, nor the shortcomings2 which disfigured some of its greatest heroes. "Let me freely speak unto " you of the Patriarch David : " 8 such is the spirit in which we should endeavor to handle the story of the founder of the monarchy. " Elijah was a man of like "passions with ourselves:"4 such is the view with which we ought to approach even the grandest of the ancient Prophets. " These all, having obtained a good " report through faith, received not the promise :"5 such is the distinction which we ought always to bear in mind between the rough virtues and imperfect knowl- edge of the Old Dispensation, and the higher hopes and graces of the New.

But our faith in the transcendent interest of the story, the general nobleness of its characters, and the splendor of the truths proclaimed by it, ought not to

1 For the three divisions of the (comp. Luke ix. 54-56) ; Jer. xviii History, see Introduction to Vol. I. 23 (comp. Luke xxiii. 34); xx. 1 p. xxxii. 14 ; xxxviii. 27.

2 The use of this word has been 3 Acts ii. 29. severely condemned. It is sufficient 4 James v. 17. to refer to 2 Sam. xii. 7, 13, 31 ; 5 Heb. xi. 39. I Kings xiii. 26; 2 Kings i 10

X PREFACE

allow of any fear lest they should suffer either from the occasional uncertainty of the form in which the}' have been handed down to us, or from a nearei view of the crust of human passion and error which encloses without obscuring the luminous centre of spiritual truth. The beauty of the narrative, and the charm of its incidents, if not belonging to the highest form of Inspiration, is yet a gift of no ordi- nary value, which perhaps no previous generation has been so well able to appreciate as our own. The lessons of perennial wisdom which the history imparts, even irrespectively of traditional usage, jus- tify, I humbly trust, the practical applications that I have ventured to draw from it, and form the real grounds of distinction between it and other histories, as also between the essential and the subordinate parts of its own contents. In the sublime elevation1 of the moral and spiritual teaching of the Psalmists and Prophets, in the eagerness with which they look out of themselves, and out of their own time and nation, for the ultimate hope of the human race far more than in their minute predictions of future events is to be found the best proof of their Prophetic spirit. In the loftiness of the leading characters of the epoch, who hand on the truth, each succeed-

1 I have a peculiar pleasure in St. Paul's on Hebrew Prophecy

referring for a corroboration of the impressive alike from its content*

views which I had ventured to ex- and from the circumstances of its

press in my first volume, to the delivery, impressive Sermon of the Dean of

PREFACE. XI

big as the other fails, with a mingled grace an<J strength which penetrate even into the outward form of the poetry or prose of the narrative rather than in the marvellous displays of power which are found equally in the records of saints in other times and in other religions is the true sign of the Supernat- ural, which no criticism or fear of criticism can ever eliminate. They rise "above the nature" not only of their own times, but of their own peculiar cir- cumstances. They are not so much representative characters as exceptional. Their life and teaching is a struggle and protest against some of the deepest prejudices and passions of their countrymen, such as we find, if at all, only in two or three of the most exalted philosophers and heroes of other ages. The rude ceremonial, the idolatrous tendencies, even some of the worst vices, against which they contended, were almost inseparably intertwined with the popular devotions not only of the surrounding nations, but of their own people. "The religious world" of the Jewish Church is to them, as to a Greater than they, an unfailing cause of grief, of surprise, of in- dignation. In the name of God they attack that which to all around them seems to be religion. Their clinging trust to the One Supreme source of spiritual goodness and truth, with its boundless consequences, is the chief as it is the sufficient cause of their preeminence. Other parts of their history may be preternatural. This is in the highest degree super-

Xii PREFACE.

natural, because this alone brings them into direct communion with that which is Divine and Eternal.

3. Closely connected with this thought is the re- lation of the literature and history of the Jewish Commonwealth to the events of the Christian Dis- pensation. I may be allowed to express by an illustration the true mode of regarding this question. In the gardens of the Carthusian Convent, which the Dukes of Burgundy built near Dijon for the burial- place of their race, is a beautiful monument, which alone of that splendid edifice escaped the ravages of the French Kevolution. It consists of a group of Prophets and Kings from the Old Testament, each holding in his hand a scroll of mourning from his writings each with his own individual costume, and gesture, and look each distinguished from each by the most marked peculiarities of age and character, absorbed in the thoughts of his own time and country. But above these figures is a circle of angels, as like each to each as the human figures are unlike. They too, as each overhangs and over- looks the Prophet below him, are saddened with grief. But their expression of sorrow is far deeper and more intense than that of the Prophets whose words they read. They see something in the Prophetic sorrow which the Prophets themselves see not; they are lost in the contemplation of the Divine Passion, of which the ancient saints below them are but the unconscious and indirect exponents.

This exquisite mediseval monument, expressing as

PREFACE. Xlii

it does the instinctive feeling at once of the truthful artist and of the devout Christian, represents better than any words the sense of what we call in theo- logical language "the Types" of the Old Testament. The heroes and saints of old times, not in Judea only, though there more frequently than in any other country, are indeed " types," that is, " like- nesses," in their sorrows of the Greatest of all sor- rows, in their joys of the Greatest of all joys, in their goodness of the Greatest of all goodness, in their truth of the Greatest of all truths. This deep inward connection between the events of their own time and the crowning close of the history of their whole nation this gradual convergence towards the event which, by general acknowledgment, ranks chief in the annals of mankind is clear not only to the all-searching Eye of Providence, but also to the eye of any who look above the stir and movement of earth. It is part not only of the foreknowledge of God, but of the universal workings of human nature and human history. The angels see though man sees not. The mind flies silently upwards from the earthly career of David, or Isaiah, or Ezekiel, to those vaster and wider thoughts which they imperfectly represented. " The rustic murmur " of Jerusalem was, although they knew it not, part of a the great wave "that echoes round the world." It is a continuity recognized by the Philosophy of History no less than by Theology by Hegel even more closely than by Augustine. But the sorrow, the joy, the goodness,

XIV PREFACE.

the truth of those ancient heroes is notwithstanding entirely their own. They are not mere machines or pictures. When they speak of their trials and difficulties they speak of them as from their own experience. By studying them with all the pecu- liarities of their time, we arrive at a profound er view of the truths and events to which their ex- pressions and the story of their deeds may be applied in after ages, than if we regard them as the organs of sounds unintelligible to themselves and with no bearing on their own period. Where there is a sen- timent common to them and to Christian times, a word or act which breaks forth into the distant future, it will be reverently caught up by those who are on the watch for it, to whom it will speak words beyond their words, and thoughts beyond their thoughts. " Did not our heart burn within us while "He walked with us by the way, and while He "opened to us the Scriptures?" But, even in the act of uttering these sentiments, they still remained encompassed with human, Jewish, Oriental peculiari- ties, which must not be explained away or softened down, for the sake of producing an appearance of uniformity which may be found in the Koran, but which it is hopeless to seek in the Bible, and which, if it were found there, would completely destroy the historical character of its contents. To refuse to see the first and direct application of their expressions to themselves, is like an unwillingness such as some simple and religious minds have felt to ac-

PREFACE X?

knowledge the existence, or to dwell on the topog- raphy, of the city of Jerusalem and the wilderness of Arabia, because those localities have been so long associated with the higher truths of spiritual religion. There will further result from this mode of approaching the subject the advantage of a juster appreciation of the Divine mission to which "the "Prophets and righteous men" of former times bore witness. Resemblance of mere outward circumstances, however exact, throws no light on the essential character of Him whose life they are brought to illustrate; nor is it any such kind of resemblance which justifies the relation of that Life to the per- sonal needs of mankind. But a real resemblance of moral and mental qualities or situations, which "can be universally felt and understood, is a direct help to feel and understand in what consists the Charac- ter and Person of Him whom we are called upon to love and adore, and in what consists the possi bility of our approach to Him. It is a fruitful illustra- tion of the argument which pervades the "Analogy" of Bishop Butler, and which has been well brought out by our best modern divines, namely, that "God " gave His Son to the world, in the same way of good- "ness as He affords particular persons the friendly "assistance of their fellow-creatures ... in the same "way of goodness, though in a transcendent and in- definitely higher degree."1 It is only from the com- munity of spirit which exists between the Manifes-

i Butler's Analogy, Part II. ch. v. §§ 5, 7.

XT?i PREFACE.

tation of Christ and the likeness of Himself in the good men who preceded or who succeeded, that we can speak of them either as His types or His follow- ers. It is by thus speaking of them that we shall best conceive the work of Him "in whom in the "dispensation of the fulness of time all things were a gathered together in one."

Both theirs and ours Thou art,

As we and they are Thine ; Kings, Prophets, Patriarchs, all have part

Along the sacred line.

Oh bond of union, dear

And strong as is Thy grace; Saints, parted by a thousand year,

May there in heart embrace.1

The immediate preparation for that Manifestation in the period between the Captivity and the final overthrow of Jerusalem and of the Jewish nation may be the subject of another volume, if life and strength are granted, amidst the pressure of other engagements, to continue a task begun in earlier and less disturbed days.

May the Students for whom these Lectures were specially intended receive them as the memorial of efforts, however imperfect, (if I may employ the words in which the plan of these Lectures was first indicated,) " so to delineate the outward events of "the Sacred History as that they should come home "with new power to those who by familiarity have

* Christian Year, on " The Circumcision of Christ."

PREFACE. XVII

"almost ceased to regard them as historical truth at "all: so to bring out their inward spirit that the "more complete realization of their outward form "should not degrade, but exalt, the Faith of winch "they are the vehicle."

Deanery, West-mikr*-! b . November 2, 1861

▼OL. II §

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prkface . . V

THE HOUSE OF SAUL.

LECTURE XXI.

SAUL.

The Family of Saul .......... 6

His Call 7

His Personal Appearance . . . . .10 His First Victory 12

The Philistine War 13

Jonathan 15

The Battle of Michmash 17

Character and Position of Saul The First King .... 20

His Court 21

His Imperfect Conversion 22

His Opposition to the Prophets 22

His Superstition and Madness 26

His Relations to David and to Jonathan . 27

The Battle of Mount Gilboa 30

The Death of Saul 34

Ishbosheth ; his Reign and Death 35

Sacrifice of Saul's Family .36

Mephibosheth 38

Sympathy for Saul and his House .39

David's Lament . 4C

The Tribe of Benjamin ... .43

XX TABLE OF CONTENTS.

DAVID.

LECTURE XXII.

THE YOUTH OP DAVID.

PAGE

The Parents of David 49

His Birthplace 50

His Brothers and Nephews 51

His Personal Appearance 53

His Shepherd Life , 55

His Minstrelsy 55

His Martial Exploits 58

The Battle of Ephes-dammim .59

His Rise in the Court of Saul ....... 62

His Friendship with Jonathan .... . 63

His Escape 65

His Wanderings :

At the Court of Achish 68

In the Cave of Adullam 69

In the Hold 69

In the Hills of Judah 71

At Engedi .... 73

Nabal and Abigail . 75

Return to Achish .77

Effects of his Wanderings 79

LECTURE XXIH.

THE REIGN OF DAVID.

Reign at Hebron 8?

Capture of Jerusalem ......... 88

Entrance of the Ark 90-94

Consecration of the City . . 90

Inauguration of the Name of Jehovah-Sabaoth . .96

Empire of David 99

Its Organization . 100

1. Royal Family . . .... 100

TABLE OF CONTENTS. * XXI

PAGE

2. The Army :

(a) The Host 101

(b) The Body-Guard 102

(c) The Six Hundred 103

3. Officers of State 104

4. The Prophets and Priests 105

Religious Supremacy of David 106

His Wars 107

Philistine War 108

Moabite War ' 109

Ammonite, Syrian, and Edomite War . . . 110-112

Siege and Capture of Rabbah 113

LECTURE XXIV.

THE FALL OF DAVID.

Uriah and Bathsheba 119

The Murder of Uriah 121

The Apologue of Nathan 122

Repentance of David ........ 123

Death of his Child 126

His Polygamy 126

Amnon and Tamar 127, 128

Conspiracy of Absalom , 130

Flight of David 131-136

Death of Ahithophel 138

David at Mahanaim 139

Death of Absalom 140

The Return 142

Revolt of Sheba 144

Murder of Amasa .••••«... 145

The Census 146

The Plague 147

Araunah ... 148

The Last Words of David 150-153

His Death and Burial 155

XX11

TABLE OF CONTENTS

LECTURE XXV.

the psalter of david.

iaom

David's Character ... 157

Origin of the Psalter . 159

Its Use in Various Ages 162

Causes of its Universality 164

1. Poetical Character . . . . . 164

2. Diversity of Elements 165

Its Defects 169

Its Excellences 170

1. Personal Experiences .170

2. Naturalness 172

3. Spiritual Life 173

Messianic Hopes .... •••• 176

SOLOMON.

LECTURE XXVI.

TOE EMPIRE OF SOLOMON.

His Visit to Gibeon and his Dream .

. 190-195

. 200

4. With Tyre

. 202

Commercial Enterprises .....

203

II. Internal Relations of the Empire .

. 209

Its Peaceful Condition . . .

209

Court and Camp of Solomon

210, 211

His Administration . <■

212

Public Works at Jerusalem

. 214

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Xxiii

FAOI

The Palace ... 214

The Throne . 216

The Banquets 216

The Stables . : . . . . . .217

The Gardens . 218

Royal State .' 220

LECTURE XXVII.

THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON.

The Building of the Temple Jts Style ..... 226,228

The Colonnade 229

The Court 229

The Altar 231

The Porch 233

The Holy Place 234

The Holy of Holies 235

The Dedication .... 236

The Procession 237

The Consecration 243

Contrast (a) with the Tabernacle 245

(&) With Herod's Temple 245

(c) With Pagan Temples 246

(d) With Christian Churches 24 7

Its Spiritual Aspect 249

LECTURE XXVHL

THE WISDOM OF SOLOMON.

The Introduction of Solomon's Wisdom . 253

Its Justice 254

Its Comprehensiveness . . . . . . . .256

Variety of its Parts . . 258

(1) His Riddles 258

Queen of Sheba 259

(2) His Science 262

(3) His Songs 264

(4) His Proverbs 267

Later Solomonian Books 270

XXIV TABLE OF CONTENTS.

TAGM

The Decline of Solomon . 274

Its Causes :

1. Polygamy 275

2. Polytheism . 277

3. Despotism . 278

4. Absence of Prophets 279

The End of Solomon Ecclesiastes 281

THE KINGDOM OF ISRAEL.

♦—

LECTURE XXIX.

THE HOUSE OF JEROBOAM. AHIJAH AND IDDO

The Kingdom of Israel.

National Character .291

Prophetical Character .292

Splendor . 295

The Disruption . 801

Jeroboam 303

Ahijah 304

Shemaiah . 306

Consecration of Dan and Bethel 807, 308

Iddo .308

The Sin of Jeroboam . 810

THE HOUSE OF OMRI. LECTURE XXX.

ELIJAH.

The House of Omri 814

Foundation of Samaria 815

The Reign of Ahab 316

Rebuilding of Jericho 316

Foundation of Jezreel 816

Jezebel 317

The Persecution .819

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XXV

PAOR

Elijah 321

The Drought 327

The Widow of Zarephath 328

The Meeting on Carmel 332

Vision at Horeb 340

Naboth's Vineyard 344

The Curse on Ahab 347

The Vision of Micaiah 349

The Death of Ahab 350

LECTURE XXXL

ELISHA.

Last Appearance of Elijah on Carmel 353

Translation of Elijah 354

Elisha 358

Contrast with Elijah 359

LECTURE XXXIL

JEHU.

Gehazi 365

The Call of Jehu 365

His Arrival at Jezreel 868

The Death of Jezebel 369

Jehonadab 371

Massacre at Samaria 372

Character of Jehu 374

THE HOUSE OF JEHU. LECTURE XXXIII.

THE SYRIAV WARS AND THE PROPHET JONAH.

The Syrian Wars.

Damascus ... . 378

J*«rooth-Gilead . RTt

XXVI TABLE OF CONTENTS.

WA.au

Siege of Samaria . . 381

Elisha the Prophet of Syria 382

Jeroboam II 386

Conquest of Moab 387

Jonah 388

LECTURE XXXIV.

FALL OF SAMARIA.

Moral Corruption of the Kingdom . ... 397

Amos 399

Physical Calamities 400

Rise of Assyria 401

End of the House of Jehu 402

Fall of the trans-Jordanic Tribes 404

Hoshea 406

Capture in Samaria 407

Hosea 409

Exiles in Assyria ...412

Nahum 412

Tobit 413

The Samaritan Sect 415

The Lessons of the Samaritan History . . 416

THE KINGDOM OF JUDAH.

LECTURE XXXV.

THE FIRST KINGS OF JUDAH.

Characteristics of the History of Judah 421

External Struggle 423

Egyptian Invasion .424

Jehoshaphat's Wars 427

Internal Struggle .481

Maacah 432

R*>*b-»ns of As? and Jehosbaphat . . . . #433

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XXVM

PAGl

Athaliah 434

Revolution of Jehoiada . . . .437

Coronation of Joash 438

His Reforms . . . . . . .441

Death of Jehoiada 443

Murder of Zechariah . . 444

Death of Joash 446

LECTURE XXXVI.

THE JEWISH PRIESTHOOD.

The Name of the Priesthood 449

Its Origin 449

Connection with the Tribe of Levi 450

Military Character 450

Sacrificial System . .454

Representative Functions 458

Subordinate Duties of Instruction 460

The Book of Chronicles 461

Oracular Responses . . . . . . .462

Benedictions 463

History of the Office 464

Connection with the General Condition of Society . . . 465

Improvements by David and Solomon 467

Its Growth in the Kingdom of Judah, and after the Captivity . 468

Its Inferior Place 46 &

Its Importance 471

Christian Jllustrations drawn from it 473

LECTURE XXVII.

THE AGE OF UZZIAH.

Prosperity of Amaziah 479

Uzziah 480

Jotham i 481

Calamities 482

Locusts 482

The Great Fast 483

Earthquake 485

Growth of Priesthood . 487

XXV111 TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGR

The Nobles 487

The Prophets .489

Joel 490

Amos . 491

Zechariah 492

MlCAH 492

Isaiah , 494

His Call 498

And Mission 502

LECTURE XXXVIII.

HEZEKIAH.

Ahaz 505

Isaiah's Prediction of Immanuel 508

Hezekiah 510

His Conversion 512

His Reforms Passover ........ 514

Destruction of High Places 515

And of the Brazen Serpent .516

Invasion of Sennacherib 517

Submission of Hezekiah . 522 ^

His Resistance 522

Encouragement of Isaiah . 525

Fall of Sennacherib 529

Sickness of Hezekiah .536

Recovery 537

Babylonian Embassy , . 538

Death of Hezekiah 539

LECTURE XXXIX.

MANASSEH AND JOSIAH.

Manasseh .541

Martyrdom of Isaiah 544

Repentance of Manasseh .... ... 546

Habakkuk 547

Josiah . 550

Discovery of the Book of the Law .... 551

Deuteronomy .... . . 552

TABLE OF CONTENTS. XXLX

PAGI

Reformation . .... . 553

Zephaniah 556

The Invasion of the Scythians 557

The Invasion of Necho 660

Death of Josiah 561

LECTURE XL.

JEREMIAH AND THE FALL OF JERUSALEM.

Importance of the Fall of Jerusalem 567

Party of the Heathen Princes 568

Party of the Priests and Prophets 569

Party of Jeremiah 570

Jeremiah.

His Solitude 571

His Doctrines 572

His Character 575

His Griefs 577

His Spiritual Teaching 578

Jehoahaz 582

Jkhoiakim 583

Urijah ............ 584

Jeremiah in the Temple 584

Battle of Carchemish . . . . . .. . . 586 Policy of Jeremiah . . . . . . . .587

His Warnings . 589

Death of Jehoiakim . . . .593

Jehoiachin 594

His Fall 595

Zedekiah 598

Last Struggle of Jeremiah 599

The Siege .... 605

The Assault 608

Flight and Exile of Zedekiah 609

Destruction of the City . . . . . 611

Lamentations of Jeremiah . . 615

Gedaliah . 616

End of Jeremiah 620

Ezekiel . 622

His Prophecies to the Exiles .... .625

His Doctrine . . 626

XXX TABLE OE CONTENTS.

PAGI

Dirge over the Nations . . 630r

His Revival 633

The Second Portion of Isaiah 637

Conclusion 643

Note A. On Isaiah xl.— lxvi 645

Note B. On the Authorship of the Books of the Old Testament 647

THE HOUSE OF SAUL,

SPECIAL AUTHORITIES FOR THIS PERIOD.

1. 1 Sam. ix. 1 2 Sam. iv. 12; ix. ; xvi. 1 14; xix. 16 30; xxi. 1

14 ; 1 Kings ii. 8, 9 ; 36—46 ; 1 Chron. viii. 33—40 ; ix. 35 ; x. 14 (Hebrew and LXX.).

2. Jewish Traditions : in Josephus, Ant. vi. 4 vii. 2, § 1 ; vii. 5, § 5 ; 9, § 3,

4; 11, § 3; viii. 1, § 5 : in Otho's Lexicon Rabbinico pMlologicum, " Saul : " and in the notes of Meyer to the Seder Olam. 8. Mussulman Traditions : in the Koran (ii. 247 252); and in D'Herbelot'f Bibliotheque Orientale, " Thalout ben Kissai."

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THE HOUSE OF SAUL.

LECTURE XXL

SAUL.

Samuel is the chief figure of the transitional period which opens the history of the Monarchy.1 But there is another, on whom the character of the epoch is im- pressed still more strongly, who belongs to this period especially, and could belong to no other.

Saul is the first King of Israel. In him that new and strange idea became impersonated. In him we feel that we have made a marked advance in the history, from the patriarchal and nomadic state, which concerns us mainly by its contrast with our own, to that fixed and settled state which has more or less pervaded the whole condition of the Church ever since.

But, although in outward form Saul belonged to the new epoch, although even in spirit he from time to time threw himself into it, yet on the whole he is a product of the earlier condition. Whilst Samuel's existence comprehends and overlaps both periods in the calmness of a higher elevation, the career of Saul derives its peculiar interest from the fact that it is the eddy in which both streams converge. In that vortex he strug- gles— the centre of events and persons greater than himself; and in that struggle he is borne down, and

J See Lecture XVUI.

6 EAULY LIFE OF SAUL. Lect. XXI

lost. It is this pathetic interest which has more than once suggested the story of Saul as a subject for the modern drama, and which it is now proposed to draw out of the well-known incidents of his life. He is, we may say, the first character of the tfewish history which we are able to trace out in any minuteness of detail. He is the first in regard to whom we can make out that whole connection of a large family, father, uncle, cousin, sons, grandsons, which, as a modern historian1 well observes, is so important in making us feel that we have acquired a real acquaintance with any personage of past times.

From the household of Abiel of the tribe of Benjamin The family two sons were born, related to each other either as cousins, or as uncle and nephew.2 The elder was Abner, the younger was Saul.

It is uncertain in what precise spot of the territory of that fierce tribe the original seat of the family lay. It may have been the conical eminence amongst its central hills, known from its subsequent connection with him as Gibeah-of-Saul. It was more probably the village of Zelah, on its extreme southern frontier, in which was the ancestral burial-place.3 Although the family itself was of small importance, Kish, the son or grandson of Abiel, was regarded as a powerful and wealthy chief; and it is in connection with the deter- mination to recover his lost property that his son Saul first appears before us.

A drove of asses, still the cherished animal of the Israelite chiefs,4 had gone astray on the mountains. In search of them, by pathways of which every stage is mentioned, as if to mark the importance of the journey,

1 Palgrave's Normandy. 3 2 Sam. xxi. 14.

2 See the Pedigree on p. 4. * See Lecture IV.

L

Lect. XXI. EARLY LIFE OF SAUL 7

but which have not yet been identified/ Saul wandered at his father's bidding, accompanied by a trustworthy servant,2 traditionally believed to have been Doeg the Edomite, who acted as guide and guardian of the young man. After a three days' circuit they arrived at the foot of a hill surmounted by a town,3 when Saul prq;s, posed to return home, but was deterred by the advion- of the servant, who suggested that before doing so tr the should consult a " man of God," a " seer," as to the ^ung of the asses, securing his oracle by a present {bakhsl emi- of a quarter of a silver shekel. They were instruc by the maidens at the well outside the city to catch t^nd seer as he came out on his way to a sacred eminei the where a sacrificial feast was waiting for his bene die t^lays At the gate