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LIBRARY

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MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY

. FROM THE WILLARD PEELE HUNNEWELL

(CLASS OF 1904) MEMORIAL FUND Do, Los.

The income of this fundis used for the purchase of entomological books

f

ia if

ANB AY" rk —~\," Na =) a On 4 ae

Dep) RE

THE COLEOPTERA

OF

Pe ease TSA NDS.

LONDON: PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED, ST, JOHN’S HOUSE, CLERKENWELL ROAD.

THE

COLEOPTERA

THE BRITISH ISLANDS.

A DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILIES, GENERA, AND SPECIES INDIGENOUS TO GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, WILE NOTES AS LO-LOCALITIES, HABITATS, ETC.

BY THE

REV. CANON FOWLER, M.A, F.L.S.

Secretary TO THE EstomotoaicaL Soctrty or Lonpon, anv Eptror (ror CoLEorTEeRa) OF tur EnromMo.ogist’s MontuHiy MaGazine,”’

VOL. Sit. STAPHYLINIDA.

LONDON: L. REEVE & CO., 5, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN. 1888.

ERRATA.

Vol. I. p. 160, 1. 45, for ‘‘ Notomicrus” read ‘‘ Neptosternus.” » p. 222 1. 36, for H. picicrus, Sharp” read “‘ H. picicrus, Thoms.’ p. 221, 1. 39, and 227, 1. 11, for ‘‘antennz” read maxillary palpi.” » p. 248, 1. 31, for ‘‘ Octhebius read Ochthebius.”?

Vol. II. p. 6, 1. 26, after “‘a* Posterior coxz conical” insert ‘‘ PATDERIN Ai.”

COLEOPTERA.

STAPHYLINIDZ,

Tue family Staphylinide probably contains more species than any other family of the Coleoptera; it is also one of the most natural and isolated families, but, at the same time, it is one of the most difficult to work by reason of the great affinity that exists between its members, which renders it no easy matter to find good and striking characters for its sub- division into tribes and genera.

The chief characters of the family are as follows :—

Elytra truncate, with a straight suture, never dehiscent, very much abbreviated, so that the greater part of the abdomen or hind body is exposed (except in certain Homaliina) ; wings, when present, completely folded beneath the elytra; abdomen or hind body composed of seven segments, all freely movable, and all entirely, or almost entirely,* corneous, even when more or less hidden by the elytra.

The above characters are those which chiefly distinguish the family : its members are often called Brachelytra, but, as other Coleoptera are distinctly brachelytrous, the term is erroneous; the species, however, belonging to other groups, which have the elytra abbreviated, are distin- guished from the Staphylinide by differing from them in one or more of the additional characters above mentioned ; the species of Meloé, for instance, have the elytra dehiscent ; in Cercus and other Nitidulids, and also in the Histerids and Scaphidiide, and other more or less evidently brachelytrous Coleoptera, the segments of the abdomen concealed beneath the elytra are membranous and not corneous ; in Molorchus (which has very short elytra, and the segments corneous) the wings are not folded beneath the elytra; in Micropeplus, which is still retained by many authors among the Staphylinidw, the abdomen is not freely movable ; and finally in the Pselaphide, which in many points are the closest allies of the Staphylinidx, the abdomen is composed of five distinct segments only,

The following additional characters may also be noticed :—

Form variable, but as a rule more or less elongate and linear, rarely short and broad.

Head variable, inserted in the thorax, or exserted and constricted

* The first segment of the hind body in the Homalote, which is almost or quite concealed by the elytra, appears to be semi-membranous, VOL. II. B

2 STAPHYLINIDA,

behind into a distinct and more or less narrow neck ; eyes very rarely absent, as a rule not very conspicuous, but sometimes very large (as in Stenus and Megalops); two frontal ocelli present in the Homaliina, and one in Phlossbium, in all other genera wanting.

Antenne variable in form, sometimes slender, sometimes more or less thickened towards apex, sometimes terminating in a distinct club; the method of insertion also differs considerably, and affords, as will be seen, very good characters for the subdivision of the family.

Mentum trapezoidal, anterior part separate ; ligula membranous, rarely corneous ; labrum usually transverse, either entire or bilobed ; mandibles corneous, more or less projecting, sometimes very powerful, sometimes slender, but, as a rule, denticulate or serrate, and evidently intended for a carnivorous diet ; maxille with two lobes, usually ciliate, maxillary pulpi 4-jointed, with the last joint often very small and subulate (in Aleochara with a very minute accessory fifth joint) ; labial palpi usually 3-jointed, sometimes 2-jointed (as in Myllena, Diglossa, &c.), or even apparently inarticulate; as a rule they are of normal form, but in Miyllena and a few other genera they are more or less setiform; in Aleochara there is an additional minute lobe which is usually regarded as a fourth joint ; paraglosse, as a rule, distinct.

Thorax very variable in shape, strongly reflexed beneath the body, the reflexed portion being often separated from the upper surface by a distinct ridge: it is usually visible when the insect is viewed sideways, but is sometimes strongly turned back beneath the body, so that the under surface of the thorax appears to be more or less excavated.

Prosternum variable, coxal cavities usually open behind ; mesosternum short, episterna large, epimera distinct ; metasternum usually moderately large, sometimes very short, episterna moderately large, epimera very variable, sometimes very small, or even obsolete. Legs variable in length and form; cox variable in Jeneth and relative position, and affording by their differences valuable characters for subdivision ; tibise simple or dilated, sometimes spinose or denticulate, occasionally excised at apex; tarsi 5-, 4-, or 3-jointed, anterior pair often dilated especially in male, penultimate joint sometimes strongly bilobed (as in many species of Stenus, &e.); in many genera of the Aleocharine the front or the front and middle tarsi are 4-jointed, and the hind tarsi 5-jointed ; each tarsus terminates in an onychium bearing two equal or subequal claws, which are usually simple, but occasionally are more or less distinctly denticulate at base.

On each side of the body there are ten stigmata: the prothoracic stigmata are sometimes visible and sometimes hidden by the sides of the thorax.

The hind body or abdomen is sometimes parallel-sided, sometimes strongly narrowed towards apex, and more or less conical ; it is usually more or less setose, and very often bears at its apex two styliform pro- cesses called the “anal styles” (as in Tachinus, Tachyporus, Philonthus,

STAPHYLINID®, 3

&e.); in many genera the modifications of the terminal segments in the different sexes are of great importance.

In the present work I have followed Dr. Sharp in exclusively speaking of this latter part of the body as the hind body and not as the abdomen,” and I have also followed him as regards his reckoning of the number of the segments ; Erichson and Mulsant and Rey reckon from the first apparent segment, whereas Kraatz, Thomson, and Sharp calculate from the segment which is, as a rule, wholly or partially covered by the elytra: the seventh segment, therefore, of these latter authors and of this present work is the sixth segment as mentioned in the works of Erichson and Mulsant and Rey ; the first segment, though usually hidden, is often more or less visible, so that the authors who reckon it are really more correct in so doing: the point, however, must be carefully noticed, or else confusion is sure to arise ; it will be found again alluded to under the genus Homalota.

The larve of the Staphylinide, as a whole, are very closely related to one another, and both in shape and habits much resemble the perfect insect, being long and linear and very active, fierce, and voracious ; they appear to bear a strong affinity towards the larve of the Carabide and certain Dytiscide ; some however (such as Syntomium, &c.) are short and broad and seem to have some analogy with the Silphidz, while others again are related to the Histeridz and Nitidulids : descriptions of some of the more peculiar forms will be given under their separate genera, but the majority are so much alike, that only a few need be noticed.

The pup do not call for any particular description ; they are partially covered with membrane, but the parts of the perfect insect are very dis- tinctly visible ; the form is more or less elongate and narrowed behind ; the abdominal region is often strongly margined, and the styli motorii” appear to be in many instances almost confined to the anterior margin of the thorax, and sometimes to be almost or entirely wanting; the cerci are very short, and often terminate in a short stiff seta.

The Staphylinide are for the most part carnivorous, although they are in great measure necrophagous, and to a certain extent vegetable feeders ; they devour all kinds of larve and other insects, and some of the larger species are useful in destroying slugs, snails, and worms; one or two species (as Velleius dilatatus) are found in the nests of the hornet (Vespa crabro), and probably prey upon the larve; the greater number are found in moss, dead leaves, hotbeds and dunghills, decaying vegetable refuse, dead birds and animals, &e.; a large number, however, occur in fungi or at sap (as the Boletobit, Gyrophene, and many others); some are found in flowers (e.g. certain species of Homalium, Eusphalerum, &c.) ; many live under bark or in decaying wood, and are peculiarly fitted for this habitat by their very depressed form ; others again occur solely on the banks of ponds and rivers, and may be taken in numbers by dashing water against the banks ; such are certain Steni and Bledii, the latter of which often form burrows of very large extent, and may easily be detected

B 2

4 STAPHYLINIDE.

by the casts of earth which they throw up ; some species are only found on the coast close to or even considerably below high water-mark (as Diglossa, Phytosus, Micralymma, &c.) ; it is probable, however, that all these species are at least in part dependent for their subsistence on the various insects, larvae, pupxe, or ova which they find in the dung, dead birds, fungi, flowers, &c., which they frequent, although no doubt they obtain a portion of their sustenance from the substances in which they take up their abode.

A considerable number of species are found in ants’ nests ; some of these evidently exude a fluid like Claviger and the Aphides, which is devoured by the ants; among these are Lomechusa and Atemeles ; it is possible, too, that some of them may act as scavengers of the nests; it would seem, however, that their presence is not always a benefit to their hosts ; Myrmedonia collaris, at all events, has been observed to destroy ants : it is, however, quite possible that they were either strangers or feeble and sickly individuals, in which case the beetle would only be carrying out its proper duties ; it may, too, be noticed in passing, that M. collaris is considered by some authorities to be a non-myrmecophilous beetle; if such is the case its carnivorous propensities need no explanation, as its presence among the ants it destroyed might have been merely the result of accident.

As arule the colours of the Staphylinide are sombre, but some species are exceedingly handsome ; many have brilliant red elytra; others are of a bright testaceous-red colour with black spots or abdominal rings, while others again are cyaneous with or without orange spots on the elytra: the pubescence as a rule is delicate, but occasionally (as in Emus and Crevphilus) it is very conspicuous.

In habits the members of the family are very active, and run and fly with great swiftness, the wings being much more ample than might be judged from the size of the elytra ; some few, however, are rather slow in their movements, especially among the latter tribes, such as the Oxy- telina, Proteinina, &c.; certain species have the power of exhaling a strony and disagreeable odour, sometimes resembling the smell of rotten apples, sometimes the smothering smell of a candle that has just been blown out, while others exude from their mouth a slightly corrosive liquid ; a few species, like Ocypus olens, curl up their hind body and open their jaws, and thus assume a terrifying attitude, like the genus Broscus among the Carabidee, while a considerable number (such as Xantholinus, Gyro- phiena, &e.) roll themselves up into the smallest compass possible, and remain motionless until the danger has passed.

It has been stated above that in point of numbers the family Staphy- linidee probably exceeds all other families of the Coleoptera. In the Munich catalogue of Gemminger and Von Harold (vol. ii., 1868) over 4000 species are enumerated, and in the supplement issued by M. Duvivier in 1883 between 2000 and 3000 more are added. Within the last three or four years a great many new species have been described by Dr.

STAPHYLINID ®. 5

Sharp and other writers on the family, and there still remain vast fields yet unexplored in South America, Central Africa, &c., which are certain to yield a very large number of species ; it 1s, therefore, impossible to at all estimate the number of species that will eventually be found to belong to the family : the genus ranges over the whole of the world from the Arctic to the Antarctic regions, and in all the intermediate coun- tries; some of the tropical species are very fine and brilliantly coloured, but, as a rule, the hotter climates seem richer in the smaller forms than in the larger: certain species have a very wide range; thus Quedius fulgidus oceurs as far north as Discovery Bay (from which locality a single specimen was brought by Captain Feilden, who accompanied the voyage of the Alert and Discovery in 1875-6), and extends over Greenland and the whole of North America and Europe, and as far south as the Atlantic Islands.

Upwards of 800 species of the family are found in Britain ; owing to their great difficulty the Staphylinidee were much neglected by our old collectors, and in fact in many of their collections they were scarcely represented. Leach and Stephens first brought them into prominence, but we are mainly indebted to the indefatigable labours of the late Dr. Power, and to the work and writings of Dr. Sharp, for the comparatively complete knowledge of the family as far as our fauna is concerned ; as stated above, it is a very difficult matter to find satisfactory characters for the subdivision of the tribes and genera, and any tabular arrangement must be more or less unsatisfactory; the arrangement adopted below will, however, be probably found of service if studied in conjunction with the general descriptions.

For full particulars regarding the family the student is referred to the many excellent foreign works that have been written upon it. Among the chief of these the following may be mentioned :—‘‘ Genera et Species Staphylinorum (Erichson), one of the most careful and useful monographs of any family yet published ; “Histoire N aturclle des Coléop- terts de France, Brévipennes” (Mulsant and Rey): Skan:linaviens Coleoptera, Brachelytra” (Thomson); ‘“ Naturgesichte der Insecten Deutschlands, vol. ii., Staphylinide (Kraatz); and numerous monographs on various groups and genera, such as Pandellé on the European Tachy- porina (Annales de la Soc, Ent. Francaise, ix. 1869) ; Sharp on the British Homalote (Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1869); Matthews on the genus Myllena (Cist. Ent. iii. page 33), and others.

The family, as far as our fauna is concerned, may be divided into the following sixteen sub-families, which are fairly natural ones, but very uneven in point of numbers, two or three of them containing only one species in each :—

I. Antennz inserted upon the front near the inner margin of the eyes. i. Posterior coxe large, contiguous; antenne not terminated by adistinctclub. . . . - . + + + + « « + « » ALEOCHARINE.

6 STAPHYLINID ©.

ii. Posterior cox small, widely separated ; antenne terminated bysa Gintinict claboe.\ teas tent Gelb taceug Ugh 1]. Antenne inserted on the anterior margin of the head. i, Antenne distant; prosternum not developed in front of QNLeTION COX! =. ii, Antenne approximate; ANLERIONCOXUNGS “ashy Mae mgt: (ages exten cs III. Antenne inserted under the sides of the front. i, Prothoracic stigmata conspicuous on removing the front coxa. 1. Posterior coxe transverse. A. Antenne filiform, not verticillate . . . .. 0. . B. Antenne capillary and verticillate . . .... . 2. Posterior coxe triangular, prominent ; antenne capillary SNGLVELCICHIALO Ns Boar iy camrchakat Gulia tid (it ae estate ii, Prothoracic stigmata difficult to perceive on account of pro- minence of sides of prothorax, 1. Anterior coxe very small; antenne inserted inside the base of the mandibles, terminated inaclub . . . . . 2. Anterior coxe prominent, conical, A. Vertex without ocelli.

a. Last joint of labial palpi dilated, very large, crescent- shaped ; last joint of maxillary palpi large, not much shorter than penultimate . . ......

b. Last joint of labial palpi not dilated; last joint of

maxillary palpi minute, often scarcely visible. a*, Posterior coxe conical, b*. Posterior coxe transverse. at. Posterior trochanters small, one-fifth the length of femora; head with distinct neck. . . . . b+. Posterior trochanters large, one-third the length of femora; head without distinct neck. . . . Bs Vettex: with twovoceli . 6". 2 2 miiacks soos 3.-Anterior cox transverse, sublinear, A. Vertex without ocelli; elytra covering the greater part

Ofmindibody.r oa sent, wee, vz Shi-c eteNad Poumon Re

B. Vertex with one ocellus ; elytra only slightly passing

THCLASECEMIUIN! i. Neaitycee ees. tabUatt ct 2eAgie - Abbas Paets

A. Anterior eoxce globose (e" ¢ Lip gels at ye a

prosternum developed. in front of

STENINZE.

STAPHYLININZE.

XANTHOLININE.

TACHYPORINA. TRICHOPHYINE.

HABROCERIN2.

EV &STHETIN#A.

OXYPORINA.

OXYTELINA. PHLG@OCHARINE. HoMALIIN&. PROTEININ&.

PHL@OBIINA. PIESTINA.

Of the above sub-families Dr. Sharp includes under the Oxyteline

Erichson’s Phleocharine, Proteinine, and Piestine, on

the ground that

it is impossible to separate them now that we are acquainted with a greater number of forms: in all these groups there is a great variation in the form of the anterior coxe and the pieces of the prothorax adjacent

to these, but the modifications are considered by Dr.

Sharp to be too

gradual to be used for classification, and he prefers as characters the structure of the tarsi and of the front of the head; for convenience sake, however, the sub-families have been retained in this work in their usual positions, as the characters are correct as far as our genera and _ species are concerned, and it would cause great confusion at present to alter the

classification.

Aleocharine. | STAPHYLINID 4. 7

ALEOCHARIN &.

With regard to this sub-family, Dr. Sharp (Biologia Centrali- Americana, Staphylinidew, p. 145) writes as follows :—-

“This sub-family is the most extensive and least studied of those comprised in the family, and its treatment in a satisfactory manner is a matter of extreme difficulty. Of the vast number of extra-Huropean forms that no doubt exist but little is yet known, even the North- American forms having been hitherto neglected by Entomologists. If we add to this the fact that the Aleocharine are all minute or quite small insects of fragile and loosely articulated structure, with softer chitinous envelope than is usual in the Coleoptera, it will readily be comprehended that the classification of the components of the sub-family has scarcely commenced: the large number of species and genera at present registered in the sub-family (amounting probably to 2000 species and considerably more than 100 genera) renders it, however, advisable that some method shall be adopted in their arrangement, if only with the object of facilitating reference and of saving time; and I shall accordingly make use of that recently proposed by Mulsant and Rey for the species of France in the Histoire Naturelle des Colcopteres de France, Brévipennes, Aléochariens,’ ‘introducing, however, some modi- fications in order to render it more simple. In this scheme the number of joints of the tarsi is considered superior in importance to the condition of the trophi, on which Erichson and Kraatz, the principal previous writers on the family, chiefly based their genera and arrangement. It would be out of place to discuss here the comparative claims of these two methods to superiority, but it is clear that the advantages offered by the tarsal system, as regards facility of verification and simplicity of definition, are very great, and give itasa provisional method preponderant importance.”

In the present work I have followed Dr. Sharp in adopting the tarsal system; at the same time it must be acknowledged that the examination of the number of the tarsal joints is often attended with as much difficulty and takes as much time as the examination of the trophi, which latter L have dissected out in nearly all our genera of Staphylinide: if the tarsi of some species are at all gummed, it is almost impossible to determine the number of their joints, and some require mounting in balsam to ensure certainty as regards this point.

Dr. Sharp also makes considerable use of a character which has been to a certain extent employed by Thomson, and in greater measure by Rey : as this may be found of very great use by students, it is advisable

_to quote Dr. Sharp’s words on the subject, as he appears to be the first who has used definite terms to express it ; he says, On examining some of the Staphylinid, such e.g. as a large Xantholinus, it will be observed that the middle coxe are almost without true acetabula (or coxal cavities ); this part of the limb, in fact, merely reposes on the surface of the breast,

8 STAPHYLINIDH. [ Aleocharince.

which is more or less vaguely impressed for its accommodation. In other forms, e.g. Aleochara, it will be found, on the contrary, that the coxa is imbedded in an abruptly defined cavity surrounded entirely by a well-marked raised margin. Between the extreme forms mentioned a large number of intermediate stages exist, and in the Aleocharinz offer a satisfactory and readily-observed method of differentiating the genera. When the two cavities exist entirely surrounded by a raised margin as in Aleochara, I have used the expression ‘cavities complete: the com- pletion is effected on the inner side by a prolongation of the mesosternum between the cox meeting a prolongation from the metasternum : these prolongations may be called the mesosternal and metasternal processes, and are each defined by a fine raised border. When these two borders do not meet, I have designated the cavities as incomplete, and the space intervening between their extremities I have called the intercoxal isthmus :’ this intercoxal isthmus is of variable length and breadth, but in calling it ‘long’ or ‘short,’ I have always used the words in reference to its extension in the longitudinal axis of the body.”

According to the number of the tarsal joints, the Aleocharinz may be divided into five tribes as follows :—

I. All the tarsi 5-jointed . . ALEOCHARINA. lI. Anterior tarsi 4-jointed, intermediate and posterior tarsi Be

joimbedinn . cs MyYRMEDONIINA. III. Anterior and intermediate tarsi 4-jointed, posterior tarsi 5.

jointed . . a Fand Velaiel Hell Goibel de! (<i eliete¥e) 9-0 > ODLEOCHARINA

IV. All the tarsi 4-jointed . Spike Vo ltene ts“ Vatyeot ney sent V. All the tarsi 3-jointed . 2. 2. 2. 2 © 6 «© oo

. » OLIGOTINA. . « DEINOPSINA.

ALEOCHARINA.

This tribe contains thirteen British genera: one of these, Gymnusa, agrees with the rest as regards the number of joints in the tarsi, but differs widely from them in the form of the labial palpi, in which it rather closely approaches Myllena; in other respects also it is allied to this latter genus and to Deinopsis; for the sake, therefore, of uniformity these three genera have been described together at the end of the Aleocharine : the members of the tribe Aleocharina have all the tarsi 5-jointed.

I. Labial palpi of the ordinary form. i. Head not, or scarcely, contracted at base ; border of tho- rax strongly reflexed, not, or scarcely, visible if viewed from side. 1. Thorax very plainly broader than elytra with the posterior angles strongly projecting . . . Homausa, Kraatz. 2. Thorax not or scarcely broader than elytra (except in one or two instances in which the posterior angles are not projecting). A. Palpi with an extremely minute accessory joint ; intermediate cox with cavities entirely sur- rounded by a raised margin . . . . . . © ALEOCHARA, Grav.

Aleocharina. ] STAPHYLINID®. 9

B. Palpi with the ordinary number of joints (maxil- lary palpi 4-jointed, labial palpi 3-jointed) ; intermediate cox with cavities not entirely surrounded by a raised margin. a. Kirst joint of posterior tarsi about equal in Jength to the last joint . . « » » « « e Mrcroarossa, Kraatz. b, First joint of posterior tarsi much longer than the last joint. a*. Hind body with the three first (apparent) segments feebly impressed transversely at base; hind body usually narrowed towards apex. at. Labial palpi with joints gradually narrower OxYPODA, Mannh. bf. Labial palpi with the first two joints thickencdl ws ain we aris t nn euae b*, Hind body with the three first segments strongly impressed transversely at base, fourth feebly impressed ; hind body parallel-sided . IscHNOG@LOSSA, Kraatz. ii. Head slightly contracted at base ; border of thorax Daneralery reflexed, plainly visible if viewed from BIQOMIEE Nr Geen ours iecaemas RM eines 2 tea iii. Head strongly contracted at base, projecting laterally beyond apex of the thorax.

A. First joint of posterior tarsi shorter than the two following united, and than the last joint ; antenna EMOTE rsh aa sae Oe rat lo wk! wel os eM EOPORAS DE.

B. First joint of posterior tarsi more or less elongate, at

least equal to the two following united, and not shorter than the last joint ; antenne long. a. Last joint of maxillary palpi at least one-third as long asthe penultimate . . - - + + «+ = + b. Last joint of maxillary palpi minute, plainly less than one-third as long as the penultimate. a*, Mesosternum carinate . . . » + « « « ILYOBATES, Kraatz. b*. Mesosternum not carinate. at. Antenne with joints 2-3 equal. . . . - bt. Antenne with second joint plainly longer than third Be ee ee Canon ERA ye ianntt. WS Geabiall palipisetiform ss Ske) «ae 6 Se He Ste) Ee! Gymnusa, Hr.

THIASOPHILA, Kraatz.

Ocyusa, Kraatz.

OcatEa, Lr.

CuiILoporaA, Kraatz.

HOMGUSA, Kauaatz.

This genus comprises three species (from Europe, North America, and Japan), which are distinguished by having a broad convex thorax, which is plainly broader than the elytra, and by the hind body being strongly, though gradually, narrowed from base to apex; two species occur in Europe, of which one is found in Britain ; it is usually taken in or near decayed trees in company with Formica fuliginosa,

H. acuminata, Maerk. Pitchy-red with the head and central portion of hind body more or less dark, and the apex of hind body rather broadly testaceous ; head much narrower than thorax ; antenne stout and rather short, thickened towards apex, more or less dusky, with the basal and apical joints lighter, third joint shorter than second, 5-10

10 STAPHYLINID 2%. [ Aleocharina.

strongly transverse ; thorax large, broad, and convex, with the posterior angles projecting, finely punctured ; elytra short, about as long as thorax and somewhat more distinctly punctured ; hind body strongly narrowed from base to apex, with distinct raised margin, finely punctured ; legs testaceous red. L. 2-23 mm.

Very local, and usually taken sparingly where it is found; Chatham; Tonbridge ; Woburn, near Bedford ; Tilgate Forest ; Upnor and Bromley, Surrey : Dr. Power has taken a considerable number at the foot of a tree at Micklehum in runs of Formica

Suliginosa, by cutting up the turf for a breadth of three inches on each side of the run and shaking it over paper ; it has also been found with Furmica fusca,

ALEOCHARA, Gravenhorst.

The genus Aleochara contains about 200 known species, which are widely distributed over the greater part of the world; the chief dis- tinguishing mark of the genus is the fact that the palpi are provided with a minute accessory joint, or, as some authors prefer to call it, an “articulated lobe,” so that the maxillary palpi are 5-jointed and the labial palpi 4-jointed, a peculiarity that is not found in any other genera of Coleoptera hitherto discovered.

It is probably owing to the desire to class together all the species exhibiting this character that has caused the genus Aleochara to be made up of several apparently very different groups ; one of these, the sub- genus Polystoma of Stephens, containing H. algarum, grisea, and obscurella, Thomson separates entirely from Aleochara, and places it between Platarca (Homalota brunnea, &c.) and Halobrectha (Homalvota puncticeps and its allies); in many ways this appears a better position for it, but the presence of the accessory joints of the palpi certainly precludes it from being taken out of the neighbourhood of Aleochara. The arrangement observed below is partly that of Mulsant and Rey, but I have followed Heyden, Reitter, and Weise in combining Aleochara 1. sp. and Baryodma: the character afforded by the reflexed margin of the thorax is perhaps not a very evident one, but it is constant, and may be distinguished even in carded specimens if the insect be examined side- ways from a little beneath.

I. Hind body with strong prominences in

male; sides of thorax moderately reflexed

beneath . . aeeigds ieee : Sub-Gen. Ceranora, Sleph. IL. are body without prominences in 1 male.

. Sides of thorax very strongly reflexed hibeseatlt presenting a hollow surface on the underside. . . . . . . . Sub-Gen. ALEOCHARA i. sp. Sub-Gen. BaryopMA, Thoms. ii. Sides of thorax moderately or almost horizontally reflexed beneath, present- inga flat or almost flat surface on the underside. 1. Antennee and legs elongate; upper surface shining; facies of an Ocalea. Sub-Gen. RuEocHARA, Muls. et Rey. 2. Antenne and legs short ; upper sur- face dull, strongly pubescent . . . Sub-Gen, Potystoma, Steph,

Aleochara. } STAPHYLINID. 11

Of these sub-genera the second contains the bulk of our species; the sub-genus Ceranota contains only one species, A. ruficornis, one of the most distinct of the whole genus; the sub-genus Rheochara comprises two extremely rare insects, A. procera and spadicea, which hardly resemble an Aleochara at all, and are scarcely ever likely to be met with by a collector ; while the sub-genus Polystoma contains three dull-brown species, which are confiued to the sea coast and are found under sea-weed and marine refuse; as a matter of fact, therefore, the table just given will hardly need referring to by the student, and is adopted rather as ensuring accuracy of classification, and as separating those species of the genus that evidently ought not to be classed together.

The Aleochare are found in dung, hotbeds, and decaying vegetable matter generally ; some of them are confined chiefly to dead animals or birds, while a few are found in moss, and under reeds, &e., on the banks of streams.

(Sub-Gen. Ceranota, Steph.)

A. ruficornis, Grav. Shining, dark-ferruginous, with the head blackish or dark brown, and the elytra, margins of thorax, and apex of intermediate segments of hind body reddish; head small, antennz rather long, longer than head and thorax, with third joint plainly longer than second, slightly thickened towards apex, but much more slender than in the succeeding species, fuscous, with base and apical joints lighter; thorax broader than long, about as broad as elytra, convex, distinctly punctured; elytra rather longer than thorax, somewhat rugosely punc- tured, and rather thickly pubescent; hind body only moderately con- tracted to apex, very strongly margined, basal segments rather coarsely and deeply punctured, apical segments shallowly and more obsoletely punctured ; legs reddish testaceous. L. 5-72 > mm,

Male with a transverse raised plate on the second (apparent) segment of hind body, a large blunt raised tooth-like prominence on the third segment, a small tubercle on fourth, and the sixth depressed in middle and raised somewhat semicircularly at apex, and furnished with three more or less obsolete small prominences near apical margin.

One of the finest of our indigenous Aleocharidx ; rare, although somewhat widely distributed ; in moss near nests of Formica rufa or fusca, by sweeping, running on pathways, &c. Hampstead; Charlton, Surrey; Shipley, near Horsham; Repton ; Langworth Wood, Lincoln; Gumley, Market Harborough ; Scarborough; Llangollen ; Studley, near Ripon; Liverpool; Devonshire; Hartlepool ; Northumberland district (Gosforth, Ravensworth, and Lanercost). Scotland, local, Tweed, Forth, and Solway districts.

This species varies very much in size ; I have a fine male taken near Lincoln, nearly 8 mm. in length. (Aleochara, i. sp. (Sub-Gen. Baryodma, Thoms. pars.).)

I. Mesosternum simple.

12 STAPHYLINIDE.

i, Antenng with fourth joint strongly transverse, joiuts 5-10 equal in breadth.

i Dil Ga 4 8 G6 6 Go 4 5 0 2. Elytra black .. . -

ii, Antenne with fourth joint hardly "transvers se ; joints 5-10 gradually slightly broader; elytra unicolorous black or pitchy.

1. Size larger (4-5 mm.); antenne more thickened Woes Goo G a 6 Sl ol A Sb 6! Gs 2. Size smaller (3-33 mm.) ; antennz less thickened towards apex . . 6 =o 16 6 II. Mesosternum with a longitudinal carina. i. Length 33-5 mm. 1. Thorax ‘eve nly punctured.

A. Elytra rounded at postero-external angles ; elytra black with a more or less strongly marked red spot at apex.

a. Hind body parallel-sided until just before apex ; thorax with strong lateral seta . 2 -

b. Hind body narrowed from base to as thorax without lateral setae . . .

B. Elytra more or less sinuate at apex near postero- external angles.

a. Elytra black with a more or less strongly marked red spot at apex. a*, Antenne more slender; legs longer ; body more closely and evidently punctured . b*. Antenne stouter; legs shorter; hind body less closely punctured . aI ee b. Elytra black (occasionally dark brown). a*, Hind body strongly punctured, at least at base. at. Autenne not strongly thickened, joints 6-10 only moderately transverse; apical segments of hind body evidently less card punctured than basal segments. - b+. Antenne rather strongly thickened, joints 6-10 twice as broad as tones hind body evenly punctured. . . b*, Hind body feebly punctured or - almost smooth, aft. Antenne not strongly thickened, joints 6-10 only moderately transverse; hind body visibly but diffusely punctured bt}. Antennz strongly thickened, joints 6-10 twice as broad as ne ; hind body almost impunctate. . c. Elytra red or reddish vGastaneous, sometimes darker towards sides and suture. a*, Hind body plainly narrowed from base to

hind

PND<.ecLe Olea LOPS OL enousci o ace Oueden

b*. lind body almost parallel-sided until just before apex.

a|. Antenne thicker, strongly thickened to-

wards apex, joints 6-10 twice as broad

aI GG 5 bol ed Go cio

[ Aleochara,

A, FUSCIPES, F. A. LATA, Grav,

A. BREVIPENNIS, Grav.

A. FUMATA, Grav,

A. TRISTIS, Grav.

A. BIPUNCTATA, Ol,

A. CUNICULORUM, K7.

A. MACULATA, Bris.

A. LANUGINOSA, Grav.

A. tyama, Ir.

A. VILLosA, Mann.

A. M@sTA, Grav,

A. MYCETOPUAGA, Kr.

A. M@RENS, Gy/ll. (lugubris, Aubé. Sungivora, Sharp).

Aleochara. } STAPHYLINIDE. 13

br. Antenne more slender, feebly thickened towards apex, joints 6-10 not strongly GYANSVETSS is eee fe Gls @, se) ce & 1s 2. BRUNEIPENNIS, Ay, (sanguinea, L.?). 2. Thorax shining black, with two rows of punctures on dise, and diffuse punctures at sides. A. Each elytra with a red spot at a oe 2 AG NIMMDAS Gran: B. Elytra unicolorous black . . ° . + « » V. BILINEATA, Gy/il, ii. Length not exceeding 2-3 mm. 1. Form broad in middle, strongly narrowed to apex; hind body thickly and evenly punctured. . . . A. MORION, Grav. 2. Form narrow more or less linear . . . . . . A. INCONSPICUA, Aubdé.

A. fuscipes, F. Rather broad, and somewhat convex, shining black, with the base of the antennz and the legs reddish or pitchy-red, and the elytra red-brown with the sides darker; head rather small, antenne short very strongly thickened from the fourth joint inclusive, third joint plainly longer and thicker than second ; thorax transverse, convex, narrowed in front, rather closely punctured ; elytra very trans- verse, shorter than thorax, depressed, with posterior angles rounded, very plainly and somewhat rugosely punctured ; hind body narrowed mode- rately at apex, black with apical segments sometimes lighter, strongly and diffusely punctured. L. 5-7 mm.

Male with the seventh segment of hind body slightly emarginate and finely crenulate on its apical margin.

In carcasses, haystack refuse, vegetable detritus, &c. ; very common throughout the kingdom.

A. lata, Grav. This species is often considered a mere colour variety of the preceding, the elytra being black or very dark blackish brown ; it is however rather broader, with the punctuation of the elytra slightly stronger ; the chief difference however lies in the structure of the seventh segment of the hind body of the male, which has the apex crenulated, as in the preceding species, but the crenulations are much finer and almost twice as numerous as in A. fuscipes; the legs are pitchy. L. 5-6 mm.

Found under the same circuinstances as the preceding, but not so common, and confined to the southern districts of the Midlands; New Forest (common); Deal, Sheerness, Chatham, Mickleham, Tonbridge; Hastings; Glanvilles Wotton; also occurs near Bristol and in Bewdley Forest.

A. brevipennis, Gray. Entirely black, shining, finely and thickly pubescent ; antenne rather long, black with base reddish, joints 2-3 elongate, third slightly longer than second, 4—10 gradually a little wider ; thorax convex, broader than long, narrowed in front, thickly and finely punctured ; elytra very short, hardly as long as thorax, strongly trans- verse, dull black, very thickly pubescent, strongly and asperately punc- tured ; hind body almost parallel-sided until a little before apex, strongly but not closely punctured towards base, less closely towards apex ; legs pitchy, tarsi reddish, L. 4-5 mm.

14 STAPHYLINIDA, [ Aleochara,

Male with the hind margin of seventh segment of hind body very slightly sinuate and obsoletely crenulated.

This species may easily be distinguished from A. tristis and bipunctata by its very short unicolorous black elytra and the strong and diffuse punctuation of the hind body: the antennz are entirely different from those of A. lata, and it is a much narrower and duller insect than that species.

In moss, at roots of grass in marshy places, occasionally in carrion, &c. ; not common ; Wimbledon, Esher, Caterham, Micklenam, Shirley, Whitstable, Southend, Cowley, Reigate, Chobham, Bearsted ; Hastings; New Forest; Brighton; Dawlish ; Ilfracombe. Scotland, local, Forth, Tay, Solway, and Clyde districts. Ireland, Galway (J. J. Walker).

A. fumata, Grav. Closely allied to the preceding, of which it is usually considered only a variety : it differs in being smaller and rather more shining, with the pubescence of the thorax and elytra shorter ; the antenn are proportionally more elongate, and of a darker colour, more slender towards the base and less thickened towards apex ; the elytra are shorter, not so strongly, but a little less closely punctured ; the punctuation, also, of the hind body is evidently less close, especially towards apex. L. 35-4 mm.

In Dr. Sharp’s series some of the specimens have the elytra reddish and the antennz and legs entirely ferruginous.

Rare; Soham, Cambridge (Champion); Scotland, Clyde and Solway districts (Sharp).

A. tristis, Grav. (Baryodma (Polychara) tristis, Muls. et Rey). Rather long, finely and somewhat thickly pubescent, the pubescence being somewhat erect, shining black with a rather distinctly marked red spot at the apex of each elytron ; head rather strongly, but not thickly, punctured, antenne rather short and stout, pitchy, with the base lighter, plainly thickened towards apex, third joint a little longer than second, 5-10 strongly transverse ; thorax broader than long, narrowed in front, convex, rather strongly punctured, pubescent, with rather strong out- standing set; elytra strongly transverse, plainly shorter than thorax, broadly rounded at the postero-external angles, thickly and rugosely punctured ; hind body rather long, parallel-sided in front and narrowed behind, closely and strongly punctured throughout; legs pitchy, tarsi reddish. L. 5-6 mm.

Male with dorsal plate of seventh segment of hind body slightly emarginate, ventral plate produced and ciliate.

In dung; rather common in the London district, Birch Wood, Eltham, Reigate, Mickleham, Cowfold, Esher, Chatham, Whitstable; Deal: it has also oceurred in

the New Forest, and has been doubtfully recorded from Devonshire, but appears to be confiued to the south and south-eastern parts of England.

A. bipunctata, Ol]. (Baryodma bipunctata, Thoms.). Black, shining, broad in front and strongly narrowed behind, with fine short

Aleochara | STAPHYLINID.E. 15

pubescence, with a broad ill-defined red marking at the apex of each elytron; head rather plainly punctured, antenne slightly thickened towards apex with the third joint equal to the second, black with base lighter ; thorax broader than long, convex, narrowed in front, finely and thickly punctured; elytra strongly transverse, plainly shorter than thorax, very closely and rugosely punctured, rather dull ; hind body not elongate, broad at base and plainly narrowed from base to apex, very closely punctured towards base, less closely towards apex, with very strong raised margins ; legs reddish, femora often darker. L. 4—5 mm.

Male with the seventh segment of hind body broadly sinuate and obsoletely crenulate on apical margin.

This species may at once be distinguished from A. ftrist’s, which it somewhat resembles, by its much less parallel shape, the gradual narrow- ing of the hind body from base to apex, the absence of outstanding sete on the thorax, and the more obscure and ill-defined red markings on elytra.

In dung, moss, haystack refuse, &c.; very widely distributed from Manchester downwards, but it can hardly be called common, except perhaps in the London dis- trict : it appears to become rarer further north, and in Scotland is scarce, having

occurred only sparingly in the Forth and Solway districts. Ireland, Waterford (Power), and Galway (J. J. Walker).

A. cuniculorum, Kraatz (lisignata, W. C., Baryodma (Polychara) euniculorum, Muls. et Rey). Elongate, rather narrow, finely and some- what thickly pubescent, shining black, with a more or less plainly marked red patch at the apex of each elytron ; head rather sparingly punctured ; antenne feebly thickened towards apex, third joint hardly